References and Links
This page shows some of the references and links used in creating this site. In fact, links were easily as important as reference books as a source of information. The Links also provide a good start to following up items mentioned in the site.
|References (non-Internet materials)
There is an overwhelming amount of material on the days of the week in Western languages, particularly English, and the dissemination of the planetary names to the East. There is very little about the derivation of the Chinese and Vietnamese days of the week.
1. Days of the Week in Western and other languages (including calendars)
- (English) Astronomical Names for Days of the Week by Michael Falk (1999) provides a masterful elucidation of the ancient origins of naming according to astronomical (planetary) and numerical conventions, and their spread to languages all around the world. Regrettably Falk appears to have been unable to secure proper advice on Chinese and Japanese names and his analysis falls down in those two languages.
- (English) Problems with the above paper are partly rectified in Falk's 2009 paper On the Name of the Weekly Day of Rest.
- (English) The Days of the Week page provides a wealth of information not only about the Sumerian and Babylonian planetary names, but about the Arabic, Hebrew, modern Greek, and Welsh naming of the days, the use of the word 'Sabbath' in many languages, and the reason why Monday has officially become the first day of the week. (This is only one page of a huge and fascinating site about the history of civilisation. Broad scholarship, highly recommended.)
- (English) The Seven-Day Week gives the names of the days of the week in a number of languages along with an overview of the origins of the week.
- (English) The Calendar: Doug Fry's page includes information on various calendar systems, including the origins of the names of the days of the week in English.
- (English) The Seven-Day Week and the Meanings of the Names of the Days: An introduction to the origin of the week (Babylonian) and the etymology of the names of the days of the week.
- (English) The In-Depth Days of the Week gives a detailed introduction to the origins and holidays associated with each of the days of the week in English.
- (English) Source of names and number of days in the week: An introduction to the Egyptian theory of the source of the week. And don't forget to check out the rest of Bill Hollon's incredible site about calendars (see the site map).
- (English) Claus Tøndering's Calendar FAQ Takes the view that nothing is known for certain, but goes on to present a wealth of detail. Reproduced almost word for word in Calendars: Historical Information and FAQ about days of the week, with some additional material.
- (English) Planetary Linguistics: The names of the planets in many languages, as well as a brief note on the origins of the week.
- (English) The Calendar Home Page: A good source of links to sites about calendars.
- (English) International Units: The Week.
- (English) The Catholic Encyclopedia: Sections on Sunday, Feria, Liturgical Week and the Sabbath. A learned and authoritative presentation of the Catholic perspective, especially interesting for Vietnamese.
- (English) An introduction to Constantine, who is accused of changing the Sabbath to Sunday (this is a sympathetic look).
- (English) Sunday is NOT the Sabbath. This is one of many articles that can be found claiming that Saturday is the true Sabbath.
- (English) Another article arguing against this, claiming that Sunday was always observed as the day of rest. Similarly, Saturday (the Sabbath) or Sunday? argues that the Christian observance of Sunday preceded Constantine.
2. Planetary names for days of the week in the Orient
- (Chinese) The Origin of names of days of the week in Chinese This well-researched article confirmed much of what this site originally set forth while adding copious new information. I have rewritten this site to incorporate some of this.
- (English) Wikipedia has an article on the Week which looks briefly at the Chinese and Indian weeks. The treatment is superficial, accepting uncritically the 'doctored' pedigree for xingqi that is common in Chinese sources.
- (Chinese) Chinese Wikipedia has an article on the Week that treats only xingqi and (in passing) zhou, but ignores libai completely. Looks at the planetary names and asks which is the first day of the week.
- (Chinese) www.huaxia.com has a short page on the origins of xingqi and why Chinese does not use libai. It suggests that xingqi was personally selected by the late Qing scholar 袁嘉谷 Yuán Jiāgǔ.
- (Japanese) Japanese Wikipedia has articles on the Day Names and the Week which cover their origins in Japanese.
- (English) Names of the days of the week Compares the 'Five Elements' and the planetary names of the days of the week.
- (English) The Lunar Calendar in Japan (Steve Renshaw and Saori Ihara): The only English-language site I have found concerning the Japanese days of the week.
- (English) Are the Planets associated with Days of the Week? points out succinctly what is discussed at some length on this site, i.e., the planetary names and the Five Elements in Japanese. Also gives the Sanskrit names.
- (Japanese) Professor Nakano's site on the Names of weekdays in Japan. Provided some very useful information when preparing this site.
- (Japanese) The 'ffortune.net' site has the following items about the origins of the week in Japanese. A lot of information has been drawn from this site, especially at my note on Bu Kong and the note on the Crucial Step.
- How did the 'week' come about?
- When did the seven luminaries Sun Moon Fire Water Wood Metal Earth come into use in Japan?
- How did the Japanese days of the week get their names?
- (Chinese Big5) A biography of Yi Jing.
- (Chinese Big5) A biography of Bu Kong.
- (English) The Life of Kobo Daishi can be found at the Reiki Foundation site, Koyasan and Shingon Esoteric Buddhism, and Columbia Encyclopedia.
Luminaries, Constellations, and Astrology
- (English) The 'Astronomy in Japan' site by Steve Renshaw graphically depicts the 28 Constellations ('moon stations') divided into East, North, West, and South.
- (Japanese) The site on the 28 Constellations gives information on the origins of the 28 constellations (theory of Chinese origins).
- (Japanese) A comparison of the Indian and Chinese constellations is given at the Asian Stellar Myths and Legends site.
- (English) A comparison of the Greek, Indian, and Chinese elements (the 'five elements') is given here.
- (Japanese) Fascinating information on the 'sukuyo' in Japan can be found at the Onmyodo site.
- (Chinese Big5) Another Buddhist site on the Principles for Erasing Disaster and Bringing Good Luck proudly notes that Buddhist astrology was much more developed than the modern horoscope.
3. Vietnamese Lexicology
- (English) Alexandre Rhodes and Nguyen Van Vinh — The introduction of quoc ngu into Vietnam - The transcendental death of Mr Nguyen Van Vinh. Nguyen Van Vinh (1882 - 1936) was instrumental in winning acceptance for quoc ngu in the early 20th century.
- (English) The Catholic Encyclopedia: Alexandre De Rhodes - A brief rundown of his life. An even briefer rundown at Wikipedia.
- (Vietnamese) Portugal and the creation of quoc ngu: Should history be rewritten? An article by Roland Jacques, translated from the French, placing a spotlight on the forgotten role of the Portuguese missionaries in creating quoc ngu.
- (Vietnamese) The translator Nguyen Van Vinh, a bridge between Eastern and Western culture. An article about Nguyen Van Vinh, his life, and his role.
- (English) Tu Dinh Nguyen's page on Vietnamese lexicography has information on Portuguese missionary influence on Vietnamese.