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Modal particles: юм уу, юм бэ?

15 December 2016

This is part of a series on Modal particles based on textbooks and grammar references that I have to hand.

Coverage of the question forms юм уу, юм бэ is poor in the sources I have. The best coverage is in Bayarmaa's Mongolian Language for Beginners.

(There is better coverage of юм as an "intensifying copula", that is, in a non-interrogative sense).


A. Textbooks:
   1. Mongolian Language for Beginners
B. Grammars
   2. Mongolian Grammar
   3. 蒙古语语法
C. Other:
   4. Dictionaries

1. Bayarmaa Khalzaa (Mongolian Language for Beginners) 2012

Bayarmaa is particularly valuable for including notes on the pronunciation of юм бэ / юм уу.

Question particles

Question particle "юм бэ" is used in everyday speech, when asking people about themselves or things that they definitely know. It sounds like [ii]. For example:

Та хэдэн цагт ирэх юм бэ? [irhii]
What time will you come?
Энэ юу юм бэ? [yuii]
What is this?

When people pronounce every word it gives emphasis to the question. For example:

Та хэдэн цагт ирэх юм бэ? [ireh yum be]
WHAT TIME WILL YOU COME?
Энэ миний ном уу?
Is this my book? (regular question)
Энэ миний ном юм уу? [iimuu]
Is this my book? (regular question)
Энэ миний ном юм уу? [yum uu]
IS THIS MY BOOK?
-сан юм бэ? [-sii] -ж байгаа юм бэ? [-jaigaaii]
-сан юм уу? [-siimuu] -ж байгаа юм уу? [-jaigaamuu]
-х юм бэ? [-hii] дуртай юм бэ? [durtaiii]
-х юм уу? [-hiimuu] дуртай юм уу? [durtaimuu]
-даг юм бэ? [-dii] хэрэгтэй юм бэ? [heregteiii]
-даг юм уу? [-diimuu] хэрэгтэй юм уу? [heregteimuu]

Examples:

Энэ хэд юм бэ? [-hedii]
Энэ ямар үнэтэй юм бэ? [üneteiii]
Чамайг хэн гэдэг юм бэ? [-gedii]
Чи юу хийж байгаа юм бэ? [-jaigaaii]
Хичээл хийж байгаа юм уу? [-jaigaamuu]
Чи хаашаа явж байгаа юм бэ? [-jaigaaii]
Сургууль руугаа явж байгаа юм уу? [-jaigaamuu]
Чи хаана байсан юм бэ? [-sii]
Гэртээ байсан юм уу? [-siimuu]
Та юу уух юм бэ? [-hii]
Кофе уух юм уу, цай уух юм уу? [-hiimuu]
Та юу идэх юм бэ? [-hii]
Бууз идэх юм уу, хуушуур идэх юм уу [-hiimuu]

Takeaways:


2. Kullmann and Tserenpil (Mongolian Grammar) 2005

Mongolian Grammar treats юм уу? together with other uses of юм. There is little explanation of the meaning.

Modal Particle "юм"

This particle is widely used as a particle after a verb with a Noun Determining Suffix (NDS⇪) in Tense-Bound Terminating Suffix (TTS⇪) function:

ᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠤᠤ?
Танд талх байгаа юм уу?
Do you have bread, then? (surprised)
ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠤᠤ?
Тэр монголоор заадаг юм уу?
Does he teach in Mongolian, then? (surprised)

An example of a different usage of юм уу is noted at the section on "Coordinating Conjunctions":

"буюу; юм уу" = "respectively; or"

- [буюу] originally had an alternative meaning, thus, the two connected elements don't exclude each other; they are one and the same thing, only expressed differently.
- Today most Mongolians use this conjunction almost like "эсвэл" which has an adversative meaning.
- "юм уу" is a colloquial form of "буюу"

ᠪᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠣᠪᠳᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠤᠤ ᠤᠪᠰᠤ ᠠᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠴᠢᠵᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠮᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
Би дараа жил Ховдод юм уу (эсвэл) Увс аймагт очиж үзмээр байна.
Next year I would like to go and see the Khovd or the Uvs Aimag.

Takeaways:


3. Chingeltei (蒙古语语法) 1991

Chingeltei treats юм уу and юм бэ as interrogative particles. He gives spoken pronounciations for the various particles but very little guidance as to usage.

疑问语气词ᠥ᠋ᠥ uu, ᠪᠣᠢ bui, üü, ᠶᠣᠮ yum, ᠶᠣᠮ ᠪᠣᠢ yum bui, ᠪᠠ ba, ᠪᠢᠵᠡ biǰe, ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠦ bišiü, ᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠤᠤ geǰi üü.

Table (here showing only юм, юм уу, and юм бэ):

  一般疑问语气词(不用疑问代词)
General interrogative particles (without interrogative pronouns)
特殊疑问语气词(用疑问代词)
Special interrogative particles (with interrogative pronouns)
书面语 (Written) ᠶᠣᠮ ᠤᠤ yum uu ᠶᠣᠮ yum
ᠶᠣᠮ ᠪᠣᠢ yum bui
口语 (Spoken) [imʊ:]
[imu:]
[imbe:]
[im]
(某些土语)(Certain dialects) [imi: (ime:)]
[i: (æ:, e:)]
[ime:] [i:]
ᠲᠠ ᠰᠣᠷᠣᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠣᠮ ᠤᠤ? ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠶᠣᠮ ᠤᠤ?
Та сурагч юм уу? Ажилчин юм уу?
您是学生?还是工人?
(Are you a student or a worker?)
ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠢᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠣᠮ ᠤᠤ?
Тэр чинь таны багш юм уу?
他是您的老师吗?
(Is he/she your teacher?)
ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠢᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠶᠣᠮ ᠪᠣᠢ?
Тэр чинь хэний ном юм бэ?
那是谁的书呀?
(Whose book is that?)
ᠴᠢᠨᠣ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠮ ᠪᠣᠢ?
Чиний тэр номоо хаана тавсан юм бэ?
你的那本书放在哪里了?
(Where did you put that book of yours?)
ᠲᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠢᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠶᠣᠮ?
Таны нэр чинь хэн гэдэг юм?
您的名字叫什么呀?
(What is your name?)
ᠲᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠴᠢᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠢᠬᠣ ᠶᠣᠮ?
Таний нутаг чинь хаана байх юм?
您的籍贯是哪里呀?
(Where is your native place?)

Takeaways:


4. Dictionaries

新蒙汉词典 / Шинэ Монгол-Хятад Толь compiled by the 新蒙汉词典编委会 (2007) has:

    юм ᠶᠣᠮ ❲小❳ 2. (在疑问句中,做加强语气词)

    хэн чамд хэлсэн юм бэ? 谁告诉你的?

    яагаад тэгсэн юм бэ? 为什么会那样了呢?

TTS: Tense-bound Terminating Suffix (traditionally known as an 'indicative suffix') is a category in the Kullman/Tserenpil grammar. The 'true' TTS's include the verb endings -жээ (-чээ), -в, -лаа (-лоо, -лээ, -лөө), and -на (-нэ, -но, -нө). They are known as 'terminating' because they can terminate sentences.

A TTS expresses real actions that have happened, are happening, or will happen, indicate a specific tense, can be followed by particles but not copulas. They do not modify following nouns and, depending on the suffix, are restricted in forming negatives or interrogatives.

In addition, the Noun-Determining Suffixes -сан (-сон, -сэн, -сөн), -даг (-дог, -дэг, -дөг), and -аа (-ээ, -оо, -өө) can also be used as TTS's, due to their ability to terminate sentences.
NDS: Noun Determining Suffix (traditionally known as a 'verbal noun suffix') is a category in the Kullman/Tserenpil grammar. It includes the verb endings -сан (-сон, -сэн, -сөн), -даг (-дог, -дэг, -дөг), -аа (-ээ, -оо, -өө), -х, and -гч.

An NDS can serve as a verbal adjective to a succeeding noun (явсан хүн), can take case endings (явсаныг), can be followed by the particle юм (явсан юм) or an auxiliary verb (явсан байна), and can form negatives (явсангүй) and interrogatives (явсан уу?)