The verb 保护
7 March 2016
After many years of struggling to translate English sentences like 'Tariffs are designed to protect industry from foreign competition' into Chinese, I recently decided to go back to basics and figure out the grammar of the word 保护 bǎohù 'to protect'.
Where identifying the danger from which protection is required, English uses expressions like 'protect from' or 'protect against'.
When using the equivalent words in Japanese or Mongolian, there is no particular problem. For instance, a fairly uncontroversial Japanese equivalent of 'protect from foreign competition' is:
kaigai no kyōsō kara mamoru
The postposition から kara is roughly equivalent to English 'from'. The Japanese 競争から守る kyōsō kara mamoru 'protect from competition' is thus almost a literal equivalent to the English. 守る mamoru could be replaced by 保護する hogo suru 'to protect', but this is used in exactly the same way:
kaigai no kyōsō kara hogo suru
The same applies to Mongolian:
гадаадын өрсөлдөөнөөс хамгаалах
gadaadin örsöldöönöös xamgaalax
The Mongolian uses the case ending -өөс -öös, which is essentially an ablative meaning 'from'. The Mongolian is therefore also a literal equivalent to the English.
But using a direct Chinese equivalent results in a decidedly awkward, indeed virtually ungrammatical construction:
cóng jìngzheng bǎohù
Recently I decided to take a look at Internet resources to figure out the correct usage of the Chinese verb 保护 / 保護 bǎohù 'to protect'. Unsurprisingly, I found that 保护 (保護) does not enter into this kind of construction.
To gain a picture of how Chinese handles this kind of expression, let's look at iCIBA (爱词霸 / 愛詞霸: àicíbà) to see what kind of construction is typically used as an equivalent to English 'protect from' or 'protect against'.
Examples of 保护, as an equivalent of English 'protect' in the kind of construction we are discussing, are as follows. There are quite a few. (We include some examples where English does not use 'protect'):
‘protect the environment against pollution’
‘Such laws could protect the consumer from harmful or dangerous remedies’
‘The problem was to safeguard sites from encroachment by property development.’
‘It protects against environmental hazards such as wind and sun.’
‘Your arms and legs need protection from light bouncing off glass.’
‘Troops have been sent to protect aid workers against attack.’
‘So, what can women do to protect themselves from heart disease?’
‘Many manufacturers have policies to protect themselves against blackmailers.’
‘A long thin wool coat and a purple headscarf protected her against the wind’
The common feature is that 保护 is unable to be directly used with an argument equivalent to English 'from xxx' or 'against xxx'. All Chinese versions use additional verbs to express this meaning. The most common one is 免受 miǎnshòu literally meaning 'prevent receiving', that is, to prevent being affected by something.
Others include 防止 fángzhǐ 'to prevent', 免遭 miǎn zāo 'prevent (from) meeting or encountering'.
Some are double verb constructions (保护免受 bǎohù miǎn shòu 'protect and prevent from receiving/being affected by'), others are used in separate clauses (保护遗址免受... bǎohù yízhǐ miǎn shòu 'protect relics to prevent being affected by...').
Other sentences use completely different verb constructions, such as 防遭到 fáng zāodào 'prevent (from) meeting or encountering' and 挡 dǎng 'obstruct', 使...不得 shǐ zìjǐ bùdé 'cause ... not to get'.
But none of them follow the English, Japanese, and Mongolian type of structure.
A live example of this is the following sentence from Jane Eyre:
- to the left were the clear panes of glass, protecting, but not separating me from the drear November day.
is rendered in the Chinese translation (简爱 jiǎn'ài) as:
Zuǒbiān què shì míngliàng de bōlí-chuāng, tā bǎohù-zhe wǒ, ràng wǒ shòubùdào yīnyù de shíyīyuè tiānqì de qīnxí, què yòu bù bǎ wǒ yǔ wàijiè géjué.
'On the left is a bright glass-window, it protects me so that I do not receive the attack of the gloomy November weather, but also does not isolate me from the outside world.'
This example renders 'protecting ... me from the drear November day' as 'protects me so that I do not receive the attack of the gloomy November weather'. The parallelism found in 'but not separating me from (the gloomy November weather)' is lost; the clause is rendered 'does not isolate me from the outside world'. The inability of Chinese to reproduce the parallelism results in the addition of an extra word, 外界 wàijiè 'outside world'.
The Mongolian translation goes:
- нөгөө талаас тув тунгалаг цонхоор үзэгдэх гуниг дүүрэн арван нэгдүгээр сарын бүүдгэр өдрөөс зааглах аж. Гэлээ ч энэ өдрөөс намайг юу ч бүрмөсөн тусгаарлаж чадах биш.
nögöö talaas tuv tungalag tsonkhoor üzegdekh gunig düüren arvan negdügeer saryn büüdger ödröös zaaglakh aj. Gelee ch ene ödröös namaig yuu ch bürmösön tusgaarlaj chadakh bish.
From the other side separated me from the gloomy November day that was visible through the clear window. But it could not isolate me from this day.
For both verbs, Mongolian uses the 'ablative' өдрөөс ödröös 'from the day'.
As a very preliminary generalisation, English, Japanese, and Mongolian all use a classical "ablative" form, whether expressed by case ending, postposition, or preposition, whereas Chinese is prevented from doing so because the usual equivalent to 'from', 从 cóng, is semantically unable to fill the range of roles covered by the ablative.