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Handwritten and Typeface Forms of the Traditional Mongolian Script

The following tables show the handwritten form of traditional Mongolian letters and corresponding typeface forms. Each table features three columns (excepting the citation forms which have only two columns):

W: The handwritten form. This is given here in Inner Mongolian style, which, except for a few letters, is not markedly different from written styles in Mongolia itself.

P1: The common printed typeface in use in Inner Mongolia.

P2: A typeface more common in Mongolia. This typeface appears to be relatively unfamiliar to people in Inner Mongolia and less easy to read.

An idea of the difference in style between ordinary handwriting and the two typefaces can be gained from the following example of the word for 'cloud', egule (modern uul, Cyrillic үүл). From left to right, the word is shown in: actual handwriting, in P1, and in P2:

Handwriting P1 P2
egule egule egule

Note the flowing nature of the handwritten form, the more squat nature of the normal Inner Mongolian typeface (P1), and the angular, almost archaic look of the last typeface (P2).

The scans have been taken from available tables of forms rather than from running text. They are mostly clear enough, although P1 is somewhat lacking in sharpness. Some letters in P2 (for instance in the p column) have had to be assembled from available materials since no examples could be found.

1. Tables of open syllables 2. Syllable-closing forms 3. Citation forms

 

1. TABLE OF OPEN SYLLABLES

The following table shows the initial, medial, and final forms for all the ordinary open syllables in the alphabet, that is, excluding those used for writing foreign words.

There are a few minor differences (ordering, letters included) from the tables in the page on Making Sense of the Mongolian Script.

Vowels
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
a
а
ba a a a a a a
a
a
a
a
a
2
e
э
e e e e e e e
e
e
e
e
e
3
i
и
i i i i i i i i i
4
ɔ
o
ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ
5
ʊ
y
ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ
6
o
ө
o o o o o o o o o
7
u
ү
u u u u u u u u u

 

n / н
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
na
на
na na na na na na na
ba
na
ba
na
na
2
ne
нэ
ne ne ne ne ne ne ne
ne
ne
ne
na
na
3
ni
ни
ni ni ni ni ni ni ni ni ni
4

но
nɔ nɔ nɔ nɔ nɔ nɔ nɔ nɔ nɔ
5

нy
nʊ nʊ nʊ nʊ nʊ nʊ nʊ nʊ nʊ
6
no
нө
no no nʊ no no no no no no
7
nu
нү
nu nu nu nu nu nu nu nu nu

 

b / б
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
ba
ба
ba ba ba ba ba ba ba ba ba
2
be
бэ
be be be be be be be be be
3
bi
би
bi bi bi bi bi bi bi bi bi
4

бo
bɔ bɔ bɔ bɔ bɔ bɔ bɔ bɔ bɔ
5

бy
bʊ bʊ bʊ bʊ bʊ bʊ bʊ bʊ bʊ
6
bo
бө
bo bo bo bo bo bo bo bo bo
7
bu
бү
bu bu bu bu bu bu bu bu bu

 

p / п
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
pa
па
pa pa pa pa pa pa pa pa pa
2
pe
пэ
pe pe pe pe pe pe pe pe pe
3
pi
пи
pi pi pi pi pi pi pi pi pi
4

по
pɔ pɔ pɔ pɔ pɔ pɔ pɔ pɔ pɔ
5

пy
pʊ pʊ pʊ pʊ pʊ pʊ pʊ pʊ pʊ
6
po
пө
po po po po po po po po po
7
pu
пү
pu pu pu pu pu pu pu pu pu

 

x / х
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
xa
ха
xa xa xa xa xa xa xa xa xa
2
xe
хэ
xe xe xe xe xe xe xe xe xe
3
xi
хи
xi xi xi xi xi xi xi xi xi
4

хo
xɔ xɔ hɔ xɔ xɔ xɔ xɔ xɔ xɔ
5

хy
xʊ xʊ hʊ xʊ xʊ xʊ xʊ xʊ xʊ
6
xo
хө
xo xo ho xo xo ho xo xo xo
7
xu
хү
xu xu hu xu xu hu xu xu xu

 

g / ɣ / г
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
ɣa
га
ɣa ɣa ɣa ɣa ɣa ɣa ɣa ɣa ɣa
2
ge
гэ
ge ge ge ge ge ge ge ge ge
3
gi
ги
ɔ gi gi gi gi gi gi bi gi
4
ɣɔ
го
ɣɔ ɣɔ ɣɔ ɣɔ ɣɔ ɣɔ ɣɔ ɣɔ ɣɔ
5
ɣʊ
гy
ɣʊ ɣʊ ɣʊ ɣʊ ɣʊ ɣʊ ɣʊ ɣʊ ɣʊ
6
go
гө
go go go go go go go go go
7
gu
гү
gu gu gu gu gu gu gu gu gu

Note the different placing of the two dots at final ɣa. The placing of the dots in the curve of the e is a characterestic of the Inner Mongolian font.

m / м
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
ma
ма
ma ma ma ma ma ma ma
ma
ma
ma
ma
ma
2
me
мэ
me me me me me me me
me
me
me
me
me
3
mi
ми
mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mi
4

мo
mɔ mɔ mɔ mɔ mɔ mɔ mɔ mɔ mɔ
5

мy
mʊ mʊ mʊ mʊ mʊ mʊ mʊ mʊ mʊ
6
mo
мө
mo mo mo mo mo mo mo mo mo
7
mu
мү
mu mu mu mu mu mu mu mu mu

 

l / л
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
la
ла
la la la la la la la
la
la
la
la
la
2
le
лэ
le le le le le le le
le
le
le
le
le
3
li
ли
li li li ni li li li li li
4

ло
lɔ lɔ lɔ lɔ lɔ lɔ lɔ lɔ lɔ
5

лy
lʊ lʊ lʊ lʊ lʊ lʊ lʊ lʊ lʊ
6
lo
лө
lo lo lo lo lo lo lo lo lo
7
lu
лү
lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu

 

 

s / с
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
sa
са
sa sa sa sa sa sa sa sa sa
2
se
сэ
se se se se se se se se se
3
si
си
si si si si si si si si si
4

сo
sɔ sɔ sɔ sɔ sɔ sɔ sɔ sɔ sɔ
5

сy
sʊ sʊ sʊ sʊ sʊ sʊ sʊ sʊ sʊ
6
so
сө
so so so so so so so so so
7
su
сү
su su su su su su su su su

 

ʃ / ш
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
ʃa
ша
ʃa ʃa ʃa ʃa ʃa ʃa ʃa ʃa ʃa
2
ʃe
шэ
ʃe ʃe ʃe ʃe ʃe ʃe ʃe ʃe ʃe
3
ʃi
ши
ʃi ʃi ʃi ʃi ʃi ʃi ʃi ʃi ʃi
4
ʃɔ
шо
ʃɔ ʃɔ ʃɔ ʃɔ ʃɔ ʃɔ ʃɔ ʃɔ ʃɔ
5
ʃʊ
шy
ʃʊ ʃʊ ʃʊ ʃʊ ʃʊ ʃʊ ʃʊ ʃʊ ʃʊ
6
ʃo
шө
ʃo ʃo ʃo ʃo ʃo ʃo ʃo ʃo ʃo
7
ʃu
шү
ʃu ʃu ʃu ʃu ʃu ʃu ʃu ʃu ʃu

 

t / т
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
ta
та
ta ta ta ta ta ta ta ta ta
2
te
тэ
te te te te te te te te te
3
ti
ти
ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti
4

тo
tɔ tɔ tɔ tɔ tɔ tɔ tɔ tɔ tɔ
5

тy
tʊ tʊ tʊ tʊ tʊ tʊ tʊ tʊ tʊ
6
to
тө
to to to to to to to dɔ to
7
tu
тү
tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu

 

d / д
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
da
да
da
da
da
da
da
da
da da da da da da
2
de
дэ
de
de
de
de
de
de
de de de de de de
3
di
ди
di
di
di
di
di
di
di di di di di di
4

до
dɔ
dɔ
dɔ
dɔ
dɔ
dɔ
dɔ dɔ dɔ dɔ dɔ dɔ
5

дy
dʊ
dʊ
dʊ
dʊ
dʊ
dʊ
dʊ dʊ dʊ dʊ dʊ dʊ
6
do
дө
do
do
do
do
do
do
do do do do do do
7
du
дү
du
du
du
du
du
du
du du du du du du

Although the language distinguishes between t and d in pronunciation, the two are not distinguished in the traditional script, apart from a few foreign words.

/ ч
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
tʃa
ча
tʃa tʃa tʃa tʃa tʃa tʃa tʃa tʃa tʃa
2
tʃe
чэ
tʃe tʃe tʃe tʃe tʃe tʃe tʃe tʃe tʃe
3
tʃi
чи
tʃi tʃi tʃi tʃi tʃi tʃi tʃi tʃi tʃi
4
tʃɔ
чo
tʃɔ tʃɔ tʃɔ tʃɔ tʃɔ tʃɔ tʃɔ tʃɔ tʃɔ
5
tʃʊ
чy
tʃʊ tʃʊ tʃʊ tʃʊ tʃʊ tʃʊ tʃʊ tʃʊ tʃʊ
6
tʃo
чө
tʃo tʃo tʃo tʃo tʃo tʃo tʃo tʃo tʃo
7
tʃu
чү
tʃu tʃu tʃu tʃu tʃu tʃu tʃu tʃu tʃu

 

/ ж
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
dʒa
жа
dʒa dʒa dʒa dʒa dʒa dʒa dʒa dʒa dʒa
2
dʒe
жэ
dʒe dʒe dʒe dʒe dʒe dʒe dʒe dʒe dʒe
3
dʒi
жи
dʒi dʒi dʒi dʒi dʒi dʒi dʒi dʒi dʒi
4
dʒɔ
жо
dʒɔ dʒɔ dʒɔ dʒɔ dʒɔ dʒɔ dʒɔ dʒɔ dʒɔ
5
dʒʊ
жy
dʒʊ dʒʊ dʒʊ dʒʊ dʒʊ dʒʊ dʒʊ dʒʊ dʒʊ
6
dʒo
жө
dʒo dʒo dʒo dʒo dʒo dʒo dʒo dʒo dʒo
7
dʒu
жү
dʒu dʒu dʒu dʒu dʒu dʒu dʒu dʒu dʒu

In the Mongolian of Mongolia and also in dialects of Inner Mongolia, in a large number of words has become ts and has become dz (in Cyrillic terms, ч has become ц and ж has become з).

j / й
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
ja
я
ja ja ja ja ja ja ja
ja
ja
ja
ja
ja
2
je
е
je je je je je je je
je
je
je
je
je
3
ji
и
ji ji ji ji ji ji ji ji ji
4

ё
jɔ jɔ jɔ jɔ jɔ jɔ jɔ jɔ jɔ
5

юу
jʊ jʊ jʊ jʊ jʊ jʊ jʊ jʊ jʊ
6
jo
ю
jo jo jo jo jo jo jo jo jo
7
ju
юү
ju ju ju ju ju ju ju ju ju

 

r / р
  Initial   Medial   Final
W P1 P2 W P1 P2 W P1 P2
1
ra
ра
ra ra ra ra ra ra ra
ra
ra
ra
ra
ra
2
re
рэ
re re re re re re re
re
re
re
re
re
3
ri
ри
ri ri ri ri ri ri ri ri ri
4

ро
rɔ rɔ rɔ rɔ rɔ rɔ rɔ rɔ rɔ
5

рy
rʊ rʊ rʊ rʊ rʊ rʊ rʊ rʊ rʊ
6
ro
рө
ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro
7
ru
рү
ru ru ru ru ru ru ru ru ru

 

2. SYLLABLE AND WORD-END FORMS

In the following scans, P1 are from a different source from the above with a slightly more angular font. The scan is also somewhat cleaner.

Consonant or vowel Medial (syllable end)   Final (word end)
W P1 P2 W P1 P2
b / б b b b b b b
ɣ / г (after masculine/yang vowels) g g ɣ g g ɣ
g / г (after feminine/yin vowels) g g g g g g
r / р r r r r r r
s / с s s s s s s
d / д d d d d d d
n / н n n n n n n
m / м m m m m m m
l / л l l l l l l
ŋ / н ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ
i / й i i i i i i
ʊ or u / у or ү ʊ or u o o ʊ or u o o

 

3. CITATION FORMS

The following are the citation forms of the open syllables. This form is used when the word is a single open syllable, or the syllable in question is cited independently, not as part of a word. This is the form used in the index of some dictionaries.

No full list of citation forms was found for P2.

  Vowels n / н b / б p / п x / х g / ɣ / г
W P1 W P1 W P1 W P1 W P1 W P1
1
a
а
a a na na ba ba pa pa xa xa ɣa ɣa
2
e
э
e e ne ne be be pe pe xe xe ge ge
3
i
и
i i ni ni bi bi pi xi xi xi gi gi
4
ɔ
o
ɔ ɔ nɔ nɔ bɔ bɔ pɔ pɔ xɔ xɔ ɣɔ ɣɔ
5
ʊ
y
ʊ ʊ nʊ nʊ bʊ bʊ pʊ pʊ xʊ xʊ ɣʊ ɣʊ
6
o
ө
o o no no bo bo po po xo xo go go
7
u
ү
u u nu nu bu bu pu pu xu xu gu gu

 

  m / м l / л s / с ʃ / ш t / т d / д
  W P1 W P1 W P1 W P1 W P1 W P1
1
a
а
ma ma la la sa sa ʃa ʃa ta ta da da
2
e
э
me me le le be se ʃe ʃe te te de de
3
i
и
mi mi li li si si ʃi ʃi ti ti di di
4
ɔ
o
mɔ mɔ lɔ lɔ sɔ sɔ ʃɔ ʃɔ tɔ tɔ dɔ dɔ
5
ʊ
y
mʊ mʊ lʊ lʊ sʊ sʊ ʃʊ ʃʊ tʊ tʊ dʊ dʊ
6
o
ө
mo mo lo lo so so ʃo ʃo to to do do
7
u
ү
mu mu lu lu su su ʃu ʃu tu tu du du

 

  / ч / ж j / й r / р
  W P1 W P1 W P1 W P1
1
a
а
tʃa tʃa dʒa dʒa ja ja ra ra
2
e
э
tʃe tʃe dʒe dʒe je je re re
3
i
и
tʃi tʃi dʒi dʒi ji ji ri ri
4
ɔ
o
tʃɔ tʃɔ dʒɔ dʒɔ jɔ jɔ rɔ rɔ
5
ʊ
y
tʃʊ tʃʊ dʒʊ dʒʊ jʊ jʊ rʊ rʊ
6
o
ө
tʃo tʃo dʒo dʒo jo jo ro ro
7
u
ү
tʃu tʃu dʒu dʒu ju ju ru ru

 

 
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