Advanced Rune Translation
|Simplified Chinese (Mandarin: China)|
Gāojí mówén fānyì
|高级 gāojí = 'high-level'.
魔文 mówén = 'magic letters'.
翻译 fānyì = 'translation'.
|High-level translation of magic letters|
|Traditional Chinese (Mandarin: Taiwan)|
Gǔdài shénmì wénzì jìnjiē
|古代 gǔdài = 'ancient'.
神秘 shénmì = 'magical, mysterious'.
文字 wénzì = 'letters'.
翻譯 fānyì = 'translation'.
進階 jìnjiē = 'advanced level'.
|Advanced level translation of ancient magical letters|
Jōkyū Rūn-moji hon'yaku-hō
|上級 jōkyū = 'advanced level'.
ルーン文字 Rūn-moji = 'Rune letters'.
翻訳 hon'yaku = 'translation'.
法 -hō = 'method'.
|Advanced translation methodology of Rune letters|
|Vietnamese (Chinese characters show etymology)|
|Dịch Thuật Chữ Rune Cao Cấp||dịch thuật (譯述) = 'translation'.
chữ Rune = 'Rune letters'.
cao cấp (高級) = 'high-level'.
|High-level Rune letter translation|
Chinese and Vietnamese use 高级 gāojí or cao cấp meaning 'high-level, high-class, high-grade'. In Japanese, the normal term for an advanced level student is 上級 jōkyū. This would not be suitable in Chinese because it refers to a higher organisational level. (On the other hand, 高級 kōkyū in Japanese means 'high-level, high-grade, luxury'). The Taiwanese translation uses the word 進階 jìnjiē, which normally refers to a rise in rank.
The two Chinese versions go for an explanatory approach whereby Runes are described as a kind of 'magical script'. The Japanese and Vietnamese versions use the English word Rune, with the word 文字 moji or chữ, both meaning 'letter', attached by way of clarification.
The two Chinese versions simply use the word for translation, which is 翻譯 / 翻译 fānyì. In reality, such books are more likely to be known in Chinese as 翻譯教程 / 翻译教程 fānyì jiàochéng 'course in translation'. The Vietnamese translation also uses a term meaning simply 'translation': dịch thuật. (The Chinese cognate term of dịch thuật, 譯述 / 译述 yìshù, refers to a very free style of narration or translation).
In Japanese, the word 翻訳 hon'yaku by itself would sit awkwardly as a book title. It is preferable to use terms such as 翻訳法 hon'yaku-hō 'translation method' or 翻訳論 hon'yaku-ron 'translation theory'.