4. SR in Subordinate Clauses
4.1. Verb Forms that take Case Endings
Verb forms that occur at the end of subordinate clauses and take noun case endings are:
-сан, -сэн, -сон, -сөн
-даг, -дэг, -дог, -дөг
-(г)аа, -(г)ээ, -(г)оо, -(г)өө
Depending on the grammarian, these forms are variously referred to as 'participles', 'gerundives', 'verbal nouns', or as forms with 'Noun-determining Suffixes'. As the terms 'verbal noun' and 'Noun Determining Suffix' suggest, these verb forms function as nouns in the sentence. Like nouns, they can take case endings, which can be followed by reflexives or possessive particles. Following Poppe, I will call these 'verbal nouns'.
The subject of the subordinate clause may or may not be expressed. If it is expressed, it may carry differential subject marking ☟ (Genitive or Accusative instead of Nominative).
In the following sentence,the subordinate clause is the object of the verb medex. The subordinate clause contains three features: a) the verb xarsan is in the Accusative case (object of medex), b) the verb is followed by the possessive particle n' (indicating 'different subject'), and c) the subject of the subordinate clause is in the Accusative (differential subject marking, emphasising 'different subject').
1sg 〖3sg.ACC 1sg.DIR look.PST.ACC MNZ 〗 know.SIMUL be.PST
I knew 〖that he looked at me〗.
ᠪᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ
Би түүнийг над руу харсаныг нь мэдэж байсан.
When, however, such a verb form carries the reflexive suffix, the subject of the subordinate clause is the same as that of the main clause ('same subject') and is not overtly expressed.
1sg 〖do-so.SIMUL say.PST.REFL〗 remember.FUT.NEG be.PRS
I don't remember〖saying that〗.
ᠪᠢ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ
ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠨᠠ᠃
Би ингэж хэлснээ санахгүй байна.
The subject of the main clause generally precedes the subordinate clause, as above. It may also follow the clause, especially if it is a pronoun:
〖3sg.ACC 1sg.DIR look.PST.ACC 3POSS〗 1sg know.SIMUL be.PST.
I knew 〖that he looked at me〗.
ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ
Түүнийг над руу харсаныг нь би мэдэж байсан.
〖do-so.SIMUL say.PST.REFL〗 1sg remember.FUT.NEG be.PRS
I don't remember 〖saying that〗.
ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ
ᠪᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠨᠠ᠃
Ингэж хэлснээ би санахгүй байна.
Below we will consider more examples of such nominalised clauses in different syntactic functions. Since relative clauses are adnominal in nature and do not carry reflexive or possessive suffixes, they are not discussed here.
4.2. Daughter clauses
In Mongolian grammar, clauses that are the subject of the sentence are known as Subject Clauses (Ögüülegdexüün gišüün ögüülber). The verb that ends the clause naturally takes the Nominative case (unmarked). similarly, clauses that are the object of the verb are known as Object Clauses (Tusagdaxuun gišüün ögüülber) and end in verbs in the Accusative case.
No name is given to clauses where the verb takes the Dative-locative or Ablative case as mandated by the verb in the main clause. However, these are arguably 'core cases' (direct daughters as discussed in Matić et al 2014) in the same way as the Accusative, and will be treated as such here.
Өгүүлэгдэхүүн гишүүн өгүүлбэр
Tусагдахуун гишүүн өгүүлбэр
(Examples for different cases follow)
As with ordinary nouns, Subject Clauses do not take the reflexive suffix. A Subject Clause may be followed by a possessive suffix or used in its bare form.
In the following sentence, the entire clause 'that I was burning with desire for you' is the subject. The predicate is ünen 'true'. Čamajg is in the Accusative case, but this is a true Accusative, not the product of differential subject marking.
2sg.ACC want.PST feeling.DAT.REFL burn.CNV go.PST 1sgPOSS true.
It's true that I was burning with desire for you.
ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ
Чамайг хүссэн сэтгэлдээ шатаж явсан минь үнэн.
The possessive particle n' may similarly be used to refer to the third person subject of the matrix clause, or even to a third person not made explicit. It commonly has a topicalising function:
leave.PST (3POSS) better
It's better to go.
ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡ᠃
Явсан (нь) дээр
This sentence acts as a general recommendation ('better to go') and can be used for first or second-person, i.e., 'It's better that you go' or 'It's better that I go'. The нь can be omitted.
The Object clause is the object of the verb of the main clause.
A common everyday construction is the following. The subject of the main clause is the same as that of the subordinate clause, hence the reflexive. The Accusative ending is omitted but understood.
I forgot 〖to get it〗.
ᠪᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
Би авахаа мартсан.
In the following sentence, the subject of the subordinate clause differs from that of the main clause. There is also differential subject marking (Genitive marking on the subject of the subordinate clause), to be discussed below.
〖tan-y ir-sen-ijg〗 bid med-sen-güj. ⇪
〖2sg.GEN come.PST.ACC〗 1pl know.PST.NEG
We didn’t know 〖that you had come〗
ᠲᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ
ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃
Таны ирсэнийг бид мэдсэнгүй.
In the following sentence the subject of the subordinate clause (a man who took books from many libraries and failed to return them) is omitted. Under differential subject marking, whereby the subject of the subordinate clause is put in the Accusative, the subject of the clause could theoretically be '896 books', but the obvious interpretation here is that the books were taken by a human agent.
Currently officials 〖 896 piece book.ACC which library.ABL take.PST.ACC POSS 〗 investigate.ANT be be.IMP
Currently the authorities are investigating 〖which libraries (he) took the 896 books from.
ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠨ
896 ᠰᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠢ
ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠡᠴᠡ
ᠠᠪᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ
Одоогоор албаныхан 896 ширхэг номыг аль номын сангаас авсныг нь тогтоогоод байгаа.
In the following example, the subject of the main clause is či 'you'. A second embedded clause, containing the content of the message, takes as its subject ter 'he', the person to whom the message is to be given.
2sg 〖3SG.COM meet.CONDITION 3SG.DAT 〖5 hour.DAT come.ACC 3POSS〗 say.IMP
If you meet him tell him to come at five o'clock.
ᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠪᠠᠯ
ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ
ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠢ᠃
Чи түүнтэй уулзвал түүнд таван цагт ирэхийг нь хэлээрэй.
As mentioned, some verbs govern (require) cases other than the Accusative.
The verb itge-x 'to believe' requires the Dative-locative. In the following sentence, gegeen is gapped from the relative clause.
〖dictator.GEN karma.GEN fruit ripen.FUT time come.PST.DAT〗 believe.PST lama ...
The lama, who believed 〖that the karma of the dictator had come (= dictator had died)〗 ...
ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠩᠭᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ
ᠦᠷᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ
ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ
Дарангуйлагчийн үйлийн үр боловсрох цаг ирсэнд итгэсэн гэгээн ...
Snowdon state.GEN investigation espionage.GEN about reveal.SIMUL, 〖wrong thing do.PST.DAT.REFL〗so-much even greatly worry.FUT.NEG be.PROG
Snowden has exposed the state's espionage investigations and 〖does not care much about having done anything wrong〗.
ᠰᠨᠣᠤᠳᠧᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ
ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂
ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠢᠮ ᠴᠤ
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠ ᠵᠣᠪᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠠ᠃
Сноуден төрийн мөрдлөг тагнуулын тухай илчилж, буруу хэрэг хийсэндээ тийм ч их санаа зовохгүй байгаа.
Amlasand xürex is a set expression meaning 'keep one's word'. Xürex 'stand by' requires the Dative-locative. This sentence features an embedding within an embedding. The unexpressed subject of the deepest subordinate clause (amlasan 'promised') is an undefined 'person'. This is identical with the (again) unexpressed subject of the immediately higher clause (xürexgüj 'not stand by') and thus requires the reflexive. The subject of the highest clause (uur xürex 'become angry) is also unexpressed. However, it is not the same as the subject of the two subordinate clauses since bajxlaar, carrying the subordinating converb suffix -xlaar, does not have the reflexive suffix. Here the subject of the main clause can probably be interpreted as 'I'.
〖〖promise.PST.DAT.REFL 〗 keep.FUT.NEG be.when〗 anger reach.HAB
When (someone) doesn’t keep 〖what they promised〗 (I) get angry.
ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠪᠠᠨ
ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦамласанд хүрэх
ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦуур хүрэх
The verb xaramsax 'regret, deplore' requires the Dative-locative.
〖X. Bolorčuluun like responsibility.NEG person.ACC leader.INST appoint.SIMUL be.gaa.DAT〗 regret.SIMUL be.PRS
It's a pity 〖that an irresponsible person like Kh. Bolorchuluun has been appointed as leader〗.
ᠬᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠ ᠳᠦ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠰᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ ᠠ᠃
Show - Hide: Further examples of Daughter Clauses
〖have-COM become.FUT 3POSS 〗money how accumulate.CAUS.ABL〗 depend.PRS
〖Becoming rich〗 depends on 〖how much money you accumulate〗.
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠦ
ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠮᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠴᠡ
The instrumental is rare. Here it is mandated by the verb baxarxax 'be proud of, be impressed by'. The subject of the main clause (ter 'he/she') is omitted.
〖song.GEN tempo.ACC well follow.SIMUL sing.HAB.ABL.REFL〗 be-proud.SIMUL be.PRS
He/she is proud 〖that he/she sings well to the tempo of the song〗.
ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠰ ᠠᠢᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠢᠬᠠᠨ
ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠵᠢᠡᠷ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ
Дууны аяс айзмыг сайхан нугалж дуулдгаараа бахархаж байна.
4.3 Other Predicate Forms
In certain cases the case form is added directly to a form that is not a verbal noun. Such forms include xeregtei, yostoi, and the negative suffix -güj.
〖2sg.GEN what do.FUT obligation.COM.ACC〗 1sg say.SUGG
I'll tell you 〖what you should do〗.
ᠴᠢᠨᠦ ᠶᠠᠭᠤ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠢ
Чиний юу хийх ёстойг би хэлье.
1sg 〖tomorrow what do.FUT should-be.COM.ACC.REFL〗 well know.SIMUL be.PRS
I know 〖what I should do tomorrow〗.
ᠪᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠠᠭᠤ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ
ᠰᠠᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠢᠨᠠ᠃
Би маргааш юу хийх ёстойгоо сайн мэдэж байна.
The following is a subordinate clause without a reflexive suffix, indicating that the subject in the subordinate clause is different from that in the main clause. It features two Accusatives, one a result of differential subject marking, the other indicating the object of the verb. It uses the possessive particle n' 'its':
〖namai-g en-ijg xij-ž čada-x ügüi-g n'〗 naiz min' čam-d xel-ž čad-na. ⇪
〖1sg.ACC this.ACC do.SIMUL able-to.SIMUL NEG.ACC 3POSS〗 friend 1sgPOSS 2sg.DAT that able-to.FUT
My friend can tell you 〖if I can do this or not〗.
ᠨᠠᠮᠠᠶᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠢ
ᠨᠠᠢᠵᠠ ᠮᠢᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨᠠ᠃
Намайг энийг хийж чадах үгүйг нь найз минь чамд хэлж чадна.
〖these all.ACC bear.SIMUL go.PROG other woman.PL like be.SIMUL be-able.FUT Neg.ACC.REFL〗 know.FUT.NEG be.PRS
(I) don't know 〖if (I) can be be like those other women who can put up with all of this〗.
ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠰᠴᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ
ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠭᠦᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ
ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠨᠠ᠃
Энэ бүхнийг тэсч яваа бусад бүсгүйчүүд шиг байж чадах үгүйгээ мэдэхгүй байна.
4.4 Gedeg (Complementiser)
A subordinate clause ending in a question particle, a noun, or an adjective can be followed by the complementiser gedeg (гэдэг, ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ), which, as the Habititive form of the verb gex (гэх, ᠭᠡᠬᠦ) 'to say', can take a case ending. Gedeg can be understood as similar to という to yū in Japanese. This is exemplified in the following sentences:
〖truth.GEN road.INST go.FUT say.HAB 3POSS〗〖true.ACC life.GEN.REFL main thing become.CAUS-SIMUL, it in-accordance-with live.PRS〗 say-PST word
〖Following the path of truth〗 means 〖making truth the main theme of your living and living by that〗.
ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ
ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂
ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠨᠠ ᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ᠃
Үнэний замаар явах гэдэг нь үнэнийг амьдралынхаа гол зүйл болгож, тэр дагуу амьдарна гэсэн үг.
The following is a straightforward example where the subordinate clause is the object of medex 'to know'. The subject of the main clause differs from that of the subordinate clause; hence no reflexive suffix. The subject of the subordinate clause features differential subject marking (Accusative case).
〖tan-yg zuraač ge-dg-ijg〗 bi med-ee-güj. ⇪
〖2sg.ACC painter say.HAB.ACC〗 1sg know.PROG.NEG
I didn't know 〖you were a painter〗.
ᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ
ᠪᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃
Таныг зураач гэдгийг би мэдээгүй.
In the following example, the subject of the subordinate clause is the same as that of the main clause.
ta 〖zuraač ge-dg-ee〗 nad-ad xel-ee-güj. ⇪
2sg 〖painter say-HAB.REFL〗 1sg.DAT say.PROG.NEG
You never told me 〖(you) were a painter〗.
ᠲᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ
ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃
Та зураач гэдгээ надад хэлээгүй.
The verb itgex 'to believe' requires the Dative-locative. In this example, the subject of the main clause is bi 'I', that of the subordinate clause is ta 'you'. The subordinate clause in this example includes two Accusatives: one is a result of differential subject marking (Nominative > Accusative); the other is a true Accusative.
〖tan-yg en-ijg xij-ž čad-na ge-deg-t〗 bi itge-ž baj-na. ⇪
〖2sg.ACC this.ACC do-SIMUL able-to.PRS say.HAB.DAT〗 I believe-SIMUL be-PRS.
I believe 〖that you can do this〗.
ᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨᠠ
ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠢᠨᠠ᠃
Таныг энийг хийж чадна гэдэгт би итгэж байна.
In the following sentence, the verb ergelzex 'to doubt' mandates the Dative-locative. The reflexive indicates that the subject of the main clause and that of the subordinate clause are the same. The subject is not spelt out and could be first, second, or third person, although first person would seem to be most likely. The Accusative in the subordinate clause is a true Accusative; it is not the result of differential subject marking.
bi 〖en-ijg xij-ž čad-na ge-deg-t-ee〗 ergelze-ž baj-na. ⇪
1sg 〖this.ACC do.SIMUL be-able.PRS say.HAB.DAT.REFL〗 doubt.SIMUL be.PRES
(I) doubt 〖(I) can do this〗.
ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨᠠ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ
Би энийг хийж чадна гэдэгтээ эргэлзэж байна.
Show - Hide: Further examples of Gedeg (complementiser)
The verb ajx 'to fear' requires the Ablative. In the following example, the subject of the main clause is bi 'I'. The subject of the subordinate clause is najz maan' 'my friend'; hence no reflexive on gedgees.
〖najz maan' nad-ad itge-x-güj baj-x vij ge-dg-ees〗 bi aj-ž baj-na. ⇪
〖friend 1sgPOSS 1sg.DAT believe.FUT.NEG be.FUT vij say.HAB.ABL〗 1sg fear-SIMUL be.PRS
I'm scared 〖my friend won't believe me〗.
ᠨᠠᠢᠵᠠ ᠮᠠᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ
ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ
ᠪᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠢᠨᠠ᠃
Найз маань надад итгэхгүй байх вий гэдгээс би айж байна.
In the next example, the unexpressed subject of both clauses is the same, most likely bi 'I'; hence the use of the reflexive on gedgees.
also 〖2sg.DAT good say.HAB.ABL.REFL〗 be-afraid.SIMUL be.PRS
(I)'m also afraid 〖(I) love you〗.
ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠴᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ
ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠢᠨᠠ᠃
Бас чамд сайн гэдгээсээ айж байна.
Sanal nijx literally means 'opinion is unified'. It requires the comitative, equivalent to English 'with'. The subject of the main clause is bi 'I'. The subject of the proposition in the subordinate clause is ter 'he/she'.
〖ter sajn xün ge-deg-tej〗 bi sanal nijl-ž baj-na. ⇪
〖he/she good person say.HAB.COM〗 1sg opinion be-uniform.SIMUL be.PRS
I agree 〖that he/she is a good person〗.
ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠠᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ
ᠪᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠨᠡᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠢᠨᠠ᠃
Тэр сайн хүн гэдэгтэй би санал нийлж байна.
The instrumental case is required by the verb baxarxax 'to be proud, to admire'. Here the subject of the main clause and that of the subordinate clause are the same (ter 'he/she').
ter 〖duučin ge-dg-eer-ee〗 baxarx-dag. ⇪
he/she 〖singer say.HAB.INST.REFL〗 be-proud.HAB
He/she is proud 〖that he/she is a singer〗.
ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠵᠢᠡᠷ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ
Тэр дуучин гэдгээрээ бахархдаг.
- 4.1. Verb Forms that take Case Endings
4.2. Daughter clauses
4.3. Other Predicate Forms
4.4. Gedeg (Complementiser)
- 6.1. The reflexive attaches directly to the postposition
6.2 The reflexive suffix attaches to the verb form preceding the postposition
- 10.1.1. Same subject
10.1.2. Different subject (differential subject marking)
10.2. Interpreting the Subject