Switch Reference in Mongolian

4. SR in Subordinate Clauses

4.1. Verb Forms that take Case Endings

Verb forms that occur at the end of subordinate clauses and take noun case endings are:

Form Function/Meaning
–(a)x4 Futuritive
–san4 Perfective
–dag4 Habititive
–aa4 Imperfective

᠊ᠬᠤ᠂ ᠊ᠬᠦ


-сан, -сэн, -сон, -сөн

᠊ᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠊ᠳᠡᠭ

-даг, -дэг, -дог, -дөг

᠊ᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠊ᠭᠡ

-(г)аа, -(г)ээ, -(г)оо, -(г)өө

Depending on the grammarian, these forms are variously referred to as 'participles', 'gerundives', 'verbal nouns', or as forms with 'Noun-determining Suffixes'. As the terms 'verbal noun' and 'Noun Determining Suffix' suggest, these verb forms function as nouns in the sentence. Like nouns, they can take case endings, which can be followed by reflexives or possessive particles. Following Poppe, I will call these 'verbal nouns'.

The subject of the subordinate clause may or may not be expressed. If it is expressed, it may carry differential subject marking ☟ (Genitive or Accusative instead of Nominative).

In the following sentence,the subordinate clause is the object of the verb medex. The subordinate clause contains three features: a) the verb xarsan is in the Accusative case (object of medex), b) the verb is followed by the possessive particle n' (indicating 'different subject'), and c) the subject of the subordinate clause is in the Accusative (differential subject marking, emphasising 'different subject').

bi tüün-ijg nad ruu xar-san-yg n' medež baj-san.
1sg 3sg.ACC 1sg.DIR look.PST.ACC MNZ know.SIMUL be.PST

I knew that he looked at me.

ᠪᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ

Би түүнийг над руу харсаныг нь мэдэж байсан.

When, however, such a verb form carries the reflexive suffix, the subject of the subordinate clause is the same as that of the main clause ('same subject') and is not overtly expressed.

bi inge-ž hel-sn-ee sana-x-güj baj-na.
1sg do-so.SIMUL say.PST.REFL remember.FUT.NEG be.PRS

I don't remembersaying that.

ᠪᠢ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ
ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Би ингэж хэлснээ санахгүй байна.

The subject of the main clause generally precedes the subordinate clause, as above. It may also follow the clause, especially if it is a pronoun:

tüün-ijg nad ruu xar-san-yg n' bi mede-ž baj-san.
3sg.ACC 1sg.DIR look.PST.ACC 3POSS 1sg know.SIMUL be.PST.

I knew that he looked at me.

ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ

Түүнийг над руу харсаныг нь би мэдэж байсан.

inge-ž hel-sn-ee bi sana-x-güj baj-na.
do-so.SIMUL say.PST.REFL 1sg remember.FUT.NEG be.PRS

I don't remember saying that.

ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ
ᠪᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Ингэж хэлснээ би санахгүй байна.

Below we will consider more examples of such nominalised clauses in different syntactic functions. Since relative clauses are adnominal in nature and do not carry reflexive or possessive suffixes, they are not discussed here.

4.2. Daughter clauses

In Mongolian grammar, clauses that are the subject of the sentence are known as Subject Clauses (Ögüülegdexüün gišüün ögüülber). The verb that ends the clause naturally takes the Nominative case (unmarked). similarly, clauses that are the object of the verb are known as Object Clauses (Tusagdaxuun gišüün ögüülber) and end in verbs in the Accusative case.

No name is given to clauses where the verb takes the Dative-locative or Ablative case as mandated by the verb in the main clause. However, these are arguably 'core cases' (direct daughters as discussed in Matić et al 2014) in the same way as the Accusative, and will be treated as such here.


Өгүүлэгдэхүүн гишүүн өгүүлбэр


Tусагдахуун гишүүн өгүүлбэр

(Examples for different cases follow)


As with ordinary nouns, Subject Clauses do not take the reflexive suffix. A Subject Clause may be followed by a possessive suffix or used in its bare form.

In the following sentence, the entire clause 'that I was burning with desire for you' is the subject. The predicate is ünen 'true'. Čamajg is in the Accusative case, but this is a true Accusative, not the product of differential subject marking.





čamaj-g xüs-sen setgel-d-ee šata-ž jav-san min' ünen.
2sg.ACC want.PST feeling.DAT.REFL burn.CNV go.PST 1sgPOSS true.

It's true that I was burning with desire for you.

ᠴᠢᠮᠠᠢ᠋ᠶ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ
ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ
ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠮᠢᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ᠃

Чамайг хүссэн сэтгэлдээ шатаж явсан минь үнэн.

The possessive particle n' may similarly be used to refer to the third person subject of the matrix clause, or even to a third person not made explicit. It commonly has a topicalising function:

jav-san (n') deer.
leave.PST (3POSS) better

It's better to go.

ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ᠃

Явсан (нь) дээр

This sentence acts as a general recommendation ('better to go') and can be used for first or second-person, i.e., 'It's better that you go' or 'It's better that I go'. The нь can be omitted.


The Object clause is the object of the verb of the main clause.

A common everyday construction is the following. The subject of the main clause is the same as that of the subordinate clause, hence the reflexive. The Accusative ending is omitted but understood.

bi ava-x-aa mart-san.
1sg get.FUT.REFLforget.PST

I forgot to get it.

ᠪᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

Би авахаа мартсан.

In the following sentence, the subject of the subordinate clause differs from that of the main clause. There is also differential subject marking (Genitive marking on the subject of the subordinate clause), to be discussed below.

tan-y ir-sen-ijg bid med-sen-güj.
2sg.GEN come.PST.ACC 1pl know.PST.NEG

We didn’t know that you had come

ᠲᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ
ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

Таны ирсэнийг бид мэдсэнгүй.

In the following sentence the subject of the subordinate clause (a man who took books from many libraries and failed to return them) is omitted. Under differential subject marking, whereby the subject of the subordinate clause is put in the Accusative, the subject of the clause could theoretically be '896 books', but the obvious interpretation here is that the books were taken by a human agent.

odoogoor alban-y-x-an 896 širxeg nom-yg al' nom-yn san-gaas av-sn-yg n' togtoo-good baj-gaa.
Currently officials 896 piece book.ACC which library.ABL take.PST.ACC POSS investigate.ANT be be.IMP

Currently the authorities are investigating which libraries (he) took the 896 books from.

ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠨ
896 ᠰᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠢ
ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠡᠴᠡ
ᠠᠪᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ
ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃

Одоогоор албаныхан 896 ширхэг номыг аль номын сангаас авсныг нь тогтоогоод байгаа.

In the following example, the subject of the main clause is či 'you'. A second embedded clause, containing the content of the message, takes as its subject ter 'he', the person to whom the message is to be given.

či tüün-tej uulz-val tüün-d tavan cag-t ir-ex-ijg n' xel-eerei.
2sg 3SG.COM meet.CONDITION 3SG.DAT 5 hour.DAT come.ACC 3POSS say.IMP

If you meet him tell him to come at five o'clock.

ᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠪᠠᠯ
ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ
ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠢ᠃

Чи түүнтэй уулзвал түүнд таван цагт ирэхийг нь хэлээрэй.

As mentioned, some verbs govern (require) cases other than the Accusative.


The verb itge-x 'to believe' requires the Dative-locative. In the following sentence, gegeen is gapped from the relative clause.

darangujlagč-ijn üjl-ijn ür bolovsro-x cag ir-sen-d iteg-sen gegeen ...
dictator.GEN karma.GEN fruit ripen.FUT time come.PST.DAT believe.PST lama ...

The lama, who believed that the karma of the dictator had come (= dictator had died) ...

ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠩᠭᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ
ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ
ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ
ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ...

Дарангуйлагчийн үйлийн үр боловсрох цаг ирсэнд итгэсэн гэгээн ...

Snouden tör-ijn mördlög tagnuul-yn tuxaj ilčil-ž, buruu xereg xij-sen-d-ee tijm č ix zovo-x-güj baj-gaa.
Snowdon state.GEN investigation espionage.GEN about reveal.SIMUL, wrong thing do.PST.DAT.REFLso-much even greatly worry.FUT.NEG be.PROG

Snowden has exposed the state's espionage investigations and does not care much about having done anything wrong.

ᠰᠨᠣᠤᠳᠧᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ
ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂
ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠢᠮ ᠴᠤ
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠪᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃

Сноуден төрийн мөрдлөг тагнуулын тухай илчилж, буруу хэрэг хийсэндээ тийм ч их санаа зовохгүй байгаа.

Amlasand xürex is a set expression meaning 'keep one's word'. Xürex 'stand by' requires the Dative-locative. This sentence features an embedding within an embedding. The unexpressed subject of the deepest subordinate clause (amlasan 'promised') is an undefined 'person'. This is identical with the (again) unexpressed subject of the immediately higher clause (xürexgüj 'not stand by') and thus requires the reflexive. The subject of the highest clause (uur xürex 'become angry) is also unexpressed. However, it is not the same as the subject of the two subordinate clauses since bajxlaar, carrying the subordinating converb suffix -xlaar, does not have the reflexive suffix. Here the subject of the main clause can probably be interpreted as 'I'.

Amla-san-d-aa xüre-x-güj baj-x-laar uur xür-deg.
promise.PST.DAT.REFL keep.FUT.NEG be.when anger reach.HAB

When (someone) doesn’t keep what they promised (I) get angry.

ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠪᠠᠨ
ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
ᠪᠠᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ

Амласандаа хүрэхгүй байхлаар уур хүрдэг.

ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ

амласанд хүрэх





ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ


ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ

уур хүрэх





The verb xaramsax 'regret, deplore' requires the Dative-locative.

X. Bolorčuluun šig xar'uclaga-güj xün-ijg darga-aar tomil-ž baj-gaa-d xaramsa-ž baj-na.
X. Bolorčuluun like responsibility.NEG person.ACC leader.INST appoint.SIMUL be.gaa.DAT regret.SIMUL be.PRS

It's a pity 〖that an irresponsible person like Kh. Bolorchuluun has been appointed as leader〗.

ᠬᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠦ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠰᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ ᠠ᠃

Х.Болорчулуун шиг хариуцлагагүй хүнийг даргаар томилж байгаад харамсаж байна.

Show - Hide: Further examples of Daughter Clauses


The Ablative is mandated by verbs meaning 'to depend on'. By its nature it is rare for this to carry a reflexive:

möngö-tej bolo-x n' möngö xerxen xurimt.luul-ax-aas xamaara-na.
have-COM become.FUT 3POSS money how accumulate.CAUS.ABL depend.PRS

Becoming rich depends on how much money you accumulate.

ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠦ
ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠮᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠴᠡ

Мөнгөтэй болох нь мөнгө хэрхэн хуримтлуулахаас хамаарна.


The instrumental is rare. Here it is mandated by the verb baxarxax 'be proud of, be impressed by'. The subject of the main clause (ter 'he/she') is omitted.

duu-ny ajas ajzm-yg saj-xan nugal-ž duul-dag-aar-aa baxarxa-ž baj-na.
song.GEN tempo.ACC well follow.SIMUL sing.HAB.ABL.REFL be-proud.SIMUL be.PRS

He/she is proud that he/she sings well to the tempo of the song.

ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠰ ᠠᠢᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠢᠬᠠᠨ
ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠵᠢᠡᠷ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠬᠠᠷᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Дууны аяс айзмыг сайхан нугалж дуулдгаараа бахархаж байна.

4.3 Other Predicate Forms

In certain cases the case form is added directly to a form that is not a verbal noun. Such forms include xeregtei, yostoi, and the negative suffix -güj.

čin-ij yuu xij-x jos-toi-g bi xel-je.
2sg.GEN what do.FUT obligation.COM.ACC 1sg say.SUGG

I'll tell you what you should do.

ᠴᠢᠨᠦ ᠶᠠᠭᠤ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠢ
ᠪᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠶ᠎ᠠ᠃

Чиний юу хийх ёстойг би хэлье.

bi margaaš yuu xij-x yos-toi-g-oo sajn med-ež baj-na.
1sg tomorrow what do.FUT should-be.COM.ACC.REFL well know.SIMUL be.PRS

I know what I should do tomorrow.

ᠪᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠠᠭᠤ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ
ᠰᠠᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Би маргааш юу хийх ёстойгоо сайн мэдэж байна.

The following is a subordinate clause without a reflexive suffix, indicating that the subject in the subordinate clause is different from that in the main clause. It features two Accusatives, one a result of differential subject marking, the other indicating the object of the verb. It uses the possessive particle n' 'its':

namai-g en-ijg xij-ž čada-x ügüi-g n' naiz min' čam-d xel-ž čad-na.
1sg.ACC this.ACC do.SIMUL able-to.SIMUL NEG.ACC 3POSS friend 1sgPOSS 2sg.DAT that able-to.FUT

My friend can tell you if I can do this or not.

ᠨᠠᠮᠠᠶᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠢ
ᠨᠠᠢᠵᠠ ᠮᠢᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Намайг энийг хийж чадах үгүйг нь найз минь чамд хэлж чадна.

en bux-nijg tes-č jav-aa busad büsgüi-čüüd šig baj-ž čad-ax ügüi-g-ee med-ex-güj baj-na.
these all.ACC bear.SIMUL go.PROG other woman.PL like be.SIMUL be-able.FUT Neg.ACC.REFL know.FUT.NEG be.PRS

(I) don't know if (I) can be be like those other women who can put up with all of this.

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠰᠴᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ
ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠭᠦᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ
ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Энэ бүхнийг тэсч яваа бусад бүсгүйчүүд шиг байж чадах үгүйгээ мэдэхгүй байна.

4.4 Gedeg (Complementiser)

A subordinate clause ending in a question particle, a noun, or an adjective can be followed by the complementiser gedeg (гэдэг, ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ), which, as the Habititive form of the verb gex (гэх, ᠭᠡᠬᠦ) 'to say', can take a case ending. Gedeg can be understood as similar to という to yū in Japanese. This is exemplified in the following sentences:


The following example makes a statement about 'following the path of truth', which is thus the subject of the whole.

ünen-ij zam-aar java-x ge-deg n' ünen-ijg am'dral-yn-xaa gol züjl bolgo-ž, ter daguu am'dra-na ge-sen üg.
truth.GEN road.INST go.FUT say.HAB 3POSStrue.ACC life.GEN.REFL main thing become.CAUS-SIMUL, it in-accordance-with live.PRS say-PST word

Following the path of truth means making truth the main theme of your living and living by that.

ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ
ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂
ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ᠃

Үнэний замаар явах гэдэг нь үнэнийг амьдралынхаа гол зүйл болгож, тэр дагуу амьдарна гэсэн үг.


The following is a straightforward example where the subordinate clause is the object of medex 'to know'. The subject of the main clause differs from that of the subordinate clause; hence no reflexive suffix. The subject of the subordinate clause features differential subject marking (Accusative case).

tan-yg zuraač ge-dg-ijg bi med-ee-güj.
2sg.ACC painter say.HAB.ACC 1sg know.PROG.NEG

I didn't know you were a painter.

ᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ
ᠪᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

Таныг зураач гэдгийг би мэдээгүй.

In the following example, the subject of the subordinate clause is the same as that of the main clause.

ta zuraač ge-dg-ee nad-ad xel-ee-güj.
2sg painter say-HAB.REFL 1sg.DAT say.PROG.NEG

You never told me (you) were a painter.

ᠲᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ
ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

Та зураач гэдгээ надад хэлээгүй.


The verb itgex 'to believe' requires the Dative-locative. In this example, the subject of the main clause is bi 'I', that of the subordinate clause is ta 'you'. The subordinate clause in this example includes two Accusatives: one is a result of differential subject marking (Nominative > Accusative); the other is a true Accusative.

tan-yg en-ijg xij-ž čad-na ge-deg-t bi itge-ž baj-na.
2sg.ACC this.ACC do-SIMUL able-to.PRS say.HAB.DAT I believe-SIMUL be-PRS.

I believe 〖that you can do this〗.

ᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ
ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Таныг энийг хийж чадна гэдэгт би итгэж байна.

In the following sentence, the verb ergelzex 'to doubt' mandates the Dative-locative. The reflexive indicates that the subject of the main clause and that of the subordinate clause are the same. The subject is not spelt out and could be first, second, or third person, although first person would seem to be most likely. The Accusative in the subordinate clause is a true Accusative; it is not the result of differential subject marking.

bi en-ijg xij-ž čad-na ge-deg-t-ee ergelze-ž baj-na.
1sg this.ACC do.SIMUL be-able.PRS say.HAB.DAT.REFL doubt.SIMUL be.PRES

(I) doubt (I) can do this.

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ
ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Би энийг хийж чадна гэдэгтээ эргэлзэж байна.

Show - Hide: Further examples of Gedeg (complementiser)


The verb ajx 'to fear' requires the Ablative. In the following example, the subject of the main clause is bi 'I'. The subject of the subordinate clause is najz maan' 'my friend'; hence no reflexive on gedgees.

najz maan' nad-ad itge-x-güj baj-x vij ge-dg-ees bi aj-ž baj-na.
friend 1sgPOSS 1sg.DAT believe.FUT.NEG be.FUT vij say.HAB.ABL 1sg fear-SIMUL be.PRS

I'm scared my friend won't believe me.

ᠨᠠᠢᠵᠠ ᠮᠠᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ 
ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ
ᠪᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Найз маань надад итгэхгүй байх вий гэдгээс би айж байна.

In the next example, the unexpressed subject of both clauses is the same, most likely bi 'I'; hence the use of the reflexive on gedgees.

bas čam-d sajn ge-dg-ees-ee aj-ž baj-na.
also 2sg.DAT good say.HAB.ABL.REFL be-afraid.SIMUL be.PRS

(I)'m also afraid (I) love you.

ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠴᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ 
ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Бас чамд сайн гэдгээсээ айж байна.


Sanal nijx literally means 'opinion is unified'. It requires the comitative, equivalent to English 'with'. The subject of the main clause is bi 'I'. The subject of the proposition in the subordinate clause is ter 'he/she'.

ter sajn xün ge-deg-tej bi sanal nijl-ž baj-na.
he/she good person say.HAB.COM 1sg opinion be-uniform.SIMUL be.PRS

I agree that he/she is a good person.

ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠠᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ
ᠪᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠨᠡᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

Тэр сайн хүн гэдэгтэй би санал нийлж байна.


The instrumental case is required by the verb baxarxax 'to be proud, to admire'. Here the subject of the main clause and that of the subordinate clause are the same (ter 'he/she').

ter duučin ge-dg-eer-ee baxarx-dag.
he/she singer say.HAB.INST.REFL be-proud.HAB

He/she is proud that he/she is a singer.

ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠵᠢᠡᠷ ᠵᠢᠠᠨ

Тэр дуучин гэдгээрээ бахархдаг.

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