Switch Reference in Mongolian

9. Gež (Quotative)

There is one kind of subordinate clause that does not take case endings: that using the quotative gež (гэж, ᠭᠡᠵᠦ). The reason is that gež is a coordinating converb form of the verb gex (гэх, ᠭᠡᠬᠦ) 'to say'. Coordinating converbs do not take the reflexive suffix. However, as it is a subordinate form, the subject of the clause is subject to differential subject marking.

In a pure quotative function, there is not necessarily a requirement for 'same subject', but the borders are fluid. (Note: there are other conversational functions that are not covered here). In the following case, the subject of the main clause and that of the subordinate clause are the same.

Doržmargaaš xödöö-nöös ir-ne ge-ž nada-d xel-sen.
Doržtomorrow countryside-ABL come.PRS that 1sg.DAT say.PST

Dorj told me that he will come from the countryside tomorrow.

ᠳᠣᠷᠵᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ
ᠢᠷᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

Дорж маргааш хөдөөнөөс ирнэ гэж надад хэлсэн.

In the following sentence, the subject of the main clause (bi 'I') and that of the subordinate clause (ter 'he/she') are different. The subject of the subordinate clause bears differential subject marking (Accusative case).

tüün-ijg man-aj ger-t ir-ex baj-x ge-ž bi bod-son.
he/she.ACC our.GEN house.DAT come.FUT be.FUT that bi think.PST

I thought he would come to our house.

ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠠᠨᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠤ
ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠢᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢ

Түүнийг манай гэрт ирэх байх гэж би бодсон.

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