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Comparison of Mongolian-Language Names for International Organisations: Mongolia and China

A. Introduction

It is not surprising that Mongolian as spoken in China (principally Inner Mongolia) shows differences in vocabulary from Mongolia itself -- see this post. Less well known is that a large and distinctive body of Mongolian-language terminology, quite separate from that used in Mongolia, has been consciously developed in China. This terminological flowering has gone almost unnoted in the outside world.

Here I would like to shine a light into this little-known linguistic ecosystem by focusing on one very small aspect: how international organisations are named in China, and how this differs from Mongolia. This may be the first time that many of these expressions have been found outside a Chinese domestic context.

While we adopt the approach of direct and equal comparison, it should be kept in mind that such terms as found in China have a fundamentally different status from those in Mongolia. The Mongolian names have been established for many years and are in actual use, including at an international level (diplomatic documents, etc.). Those in China are more artificial in nature:

Despite these shortcomings, this terminology is of interest as an alternative model of vocabulary development within the Mongolian language. The most visible differences between the two sets of terminology are:

Overall, the Mongolian names used (or rather recommended) in China give the impression of being a valiant attempt to develop up-to-date Mongolian terminology, possibly with government funding, in order both to demonstrate China's commitment to the development of minority languages and to enforce domestic political norms. However, the projects appear to be poorly organised and coordinated, artificial rather than practical in nature, and serve only to highlight the heavy constraints that minority ethnic languages labour under as part of the greater polity of China.

Three main sources have been used to generate this list of names used in China: a generalist Chinese-Mongolian dictionary published in 2005, a dictionary of law terms published in 2006, and a dictionary of 'new terms' published in 2008 (see Sources). Some terms have been mined from other sources.

Below you will find a contrastive list showing names used in Mongolia and those suggested for China. Clicking on the names will take you to individual pages for each organisation, providing Russian, Chinese, and Japanese for reference and looking carefully at the way names have been derived.

I have glossed all names in English. While glosses attempt to show the literal meaning in a consistent manner, the result may be forced. Note that Japanese naming differs from others in systematically referring to United Nations specialised agencies as 機関 kikan, suggesting an organ of government (hence the rather awkward gloss 'organ'), while describing others as 機構 kikō, which is closer in meaning to 'agency' or 'organisation' (hence the gloss 'organisation'). This differs from Chinese usage.

Finally, thanks to Steve Dodson for helping with the Russian. Any remaining errors are my own.

B. Names of International Organisations

The following is a list of international organisations found at this page. Click on the English name to go to a detailed analysis.

UNITED NATIONS
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
African Union

 

♦️ United Nations (UN)

The most important international organisation happens to be the most problematic in naming: the United Nations.

The term 'United Nations' was coined by Roosevelt during the Second World War and first officially used in the "Declaration by the United Nations" in 1942 to refer to the Allied military coalition against the Axis. Only later, in 1945, was it used for the new post-war international organisation that replaced the old League of Nations. Most (but not all) countries/languages use the wartime name without change.

In English there is (1) parallelism between the names 'United Nations' and 'United States' and (2) historical continuity with the old League of Nations through the use of the word 'nation'.

This tends to hold across many languages (see the table below) but is not universal, especially in languages associated with the old Soviet Union. In the table below there are three major exceptions (German, Japanese, and Chinese) and one minor exception (Russian). Chinese and Russian are of particular interest to Mongolian.

English
League of Nations United Nations United States
French
Société des Nations Nations Unies États-Unis
Spanish
Sociedad de las Naciones Naciones Unidas Estados Unidos
Italian
Società delle Nazioni
Nazioni Unite Stati Uniti
German
Völkerbund
'league of peoples'
Vereinte Nationen
'united nations'
Vereinigte Staaten
'united states'
Arabic
عصبة الأمم
ʿuṣbat al-ʾumam
'league / band of nations'
الأمم المتحدة
al-ʾumam al-muttaḥida
'the united nations'
الولايات المتحدة
al-wilāyāt al-muttaḥida
'the united states'
Russian
Лига Наций
liga natsiy
'league of nations'
Объединённые Наций
ob"yedinonnyye natsiy
'combined nations'
Соединённые Штаты
soyedinonnyye shtaty
'united states'
Chinese
國際聯盟 / 国际联盟
guójì liánméng
'international league'
聯合國 / 联合国
liánhéguó
'allied nations, united nations'
合眾國 / 合众国
hézhòngguó
'united masses country'
Japanese
国際連盟
kokusai renmei
'international league'
国際連合
kokusai rengō
'international union'
合衆国
gasshūkoku
'united masses country'

The Russian name for the United Nations, Объединённые Нации ob"yedinonnyye natsii, dates back to the 1942 declaration. Наций natsiy is shared with the League of Nations. However, the parallelism with 'United States' is lost:

  • The United States uses Соединённые soyedinonnyye is the past passive perfective participle of соединить soyedinit' 'unite, join'.
  • The United Nations uses Объединённые ob"yedinonnyye is the past passive perfective participle of объединить ob"yedinit' 'combine, unite, join, amalgamate, consolidate'.

This is due to linguistic change. Соединить soyedinit' in Russian is an outdated term fossilised in the names of the United States and the United Kingdom (see Stack Exchange). Объединённые ob"yedinonnyye 'combined, united' is the modern default term for 'united'.

The full Russian name of the United Nations is Организация Объединённых Наций organizátsiya ob"yedinonnykh nátsiy 'organisation of combined nations'.

The Chinese name of the United Nations, 联合国 liánhéguó 'united countries', was coined for the original 1942 declaration. (The name 联合国家 liánhé guójiā 'united countries' has also been used.) This can be interpreted as 'united nations', 'joint countries' or 'allied countries', but is more suited to speaking about an alliance of countries (国家 guójiā) than an international organisation.

  • The Chinese called the League of Nations 国际联盟 guójì liánméng 'international union' or 'international league'. This is not echoed in 联合国 liánhéguó.
  • The traditional Chinese term for the United States, 美利坚合众国 měilìjiān hézhòngguó, is a fossilised 19th-century form that, superficially at least, means 'American united masses country' and provides a poor basis for parallelism with the United Nations. The name is now usually abbreviated to 美国 měiguó.

(Incidentally, the Japanese name for the wartime United Nations was, like Chinese, 連合国 rengōkoku 'united, allied nations', but for the postwar organisation this was pointedly changed to 国際連合 kokusai rengō 'international union' (abbreviated to 国連 kokuren). This echoes the name of the old League of Nations, 国際連盟 kokusai renmei 'international league'.)

Let us now look at the Mongolian names in the light of Russian and Chinese.

Mongolia

In Mongolia, the name of the UN follows the full Russian name, Организация Объединённых Наций organizatsiya ob"yedinonnykh natsiy 'organisation of combined nations':

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллага (НҮБ)
negdsen ündestnii baiguullag
'united nations organisation'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

1. Mongolia uses the same word for 'united' as in the 'United States', which is known as Америкийн Нэгдсэн Улс amerikiin negdsen uls 'united country/s of America'.

Given that the Russian use of separate terms for 'united' in 'United States' and 'United Nations' is due to purely historical circumstances, there is no particular reason that Mongolian should have followed suit. However, Buryat, a separate variety of Mongolian standardised in the Soviet Union, did consciously make a differentiation:

  • Нэгэдэмэл Үндэһэнэй Байгуулга negedmel ündehenei baiguulga 'combined nations organisation' for the United Nations
  • Америкын Нэгэдэһэн Улас amerikiin negedehen ulas 'American united country' for the United States.

The Mongolians could easily have followed this example by using нэгдмэл negdmel 'combined, united' for the UN but apparently chose not to.

2. For 'nations' / наций natsiy, Mongolian follows the old League of Nations and uses үндэстэн ündesten. Үндэстэн ündesten is derived from үндэс ündes, which has the basic meaning 'root' but has the further meaning of 'race' or 'ethnic group'. The derived word үндэстэн ündesten itself can similarly be used for 'race' or 'ethnic group'.

The semantic range of үндэстэн ündesten as used in Mongolia has been influenced by Russian usage. Under Soviet nationalities policy, нация natsiya could refer both to independent nations (as in English) and to smaller ethnic groups that occupied their own territories within the larger state (traditionally known as 'nationalities' in English translation). Mongolia also uses үндэстэн ündesten for both.

Like English, Mongolian has other terms for independent territorial polities. One is улс uls, an old word for political units of various sizes and degrees of independence, now usually equated to 'state' but also used to mean 'country'. However, улс uls would have been unsuitable as it was already used in Америкийн Нэгдсэн Улс amerikin negdsen uls 'American united country/s'.

3. For 'organisation' in the sense of an organised group or body, Mongolian uses байгууллага baiguullag, a noun derived from the verb байгуулах baiguulakh 'to organise, institute, establish, build'.

The relationship with the naming of the old League of Nations and the United States is shown in the following table:

League of Nations United Nations United States (of America)
Russian
Лига Наций
liga natsiy
'league of nations'
Организация Объединённых Наций
organizatsiya ob"yedinonnykh natsiy
'combined nations organisation'
Соединённые Штаты (Америки)
soyedinonnyye shtaty (ameriki)
'united states (of America)'
Buryat
Нэгэдэмэл Үндэһэнэй Байгуулга
negedemel ündehenei baiguullaga
'combined nation organisation'
(Америкын) Нэгэдэһэн Улас
(amerikin) negdehen ulas
'united country/s (of America)'
Mongolian
Үндэстнүүдийн Лиг
ündestnüüdin lig
'league of nations (plural)'
Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллага
negdsen ündestnii baiguullag
'united nation organisation'
(Америкийн) Нэгдсэн Улс
(amerikin) negdsen uls
'united country/s (of America)'

Mongolian in China

In China, the Mongolian name for the UN does not follow Chinese 联合国 liánhéguó 'united nations' as might be expected. It would, in fact, be difficult to come up with an appropriate Mongolian translation of the Chinese. Instead, the term used (given in 1999, 2005, 2006, 2008) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулага
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulag
'international union organisation'

This uses the conventional Mongolian expression for 'international', ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ (олон улсын) olon ulsin, literally 'many country' or 'many state'. The term for 'organisation', ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (байгуулага) baiguulag, varies in a minor way from байгууллага baiguullag as used in Mongolia.

The roots and chronology of the Chinese Mongolian name are unclear, but given that the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia was set up under the control of the Chinese Communist Party in 1947, it seems likely that the name arose under the Communist party rather than the Kuomintang government.

The Peoples' Republic of China, like other socialist states in Asia, adopted the Soviet model of ethnic minorities, including the use of the English term 'nationality' for internal ethnic groups. Unlike the Russians, however, the Chinese maintained a strict distinction within their own language between 国家 guójiā 'state, nation' and 民族 mínzú 'nationality, ethnic group'.

This extends to Mongolian usage within China. The term ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ (үндэстэн) ündesten is restricted in the PRC to describing 'ethnic groups' (民族 mínzú). ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ündesten would have been unsuitable for naming the United Nations since it would carry connotations of 'United Ethnicities'. ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (улс) uls 'state, country' would have been unsatisfactory as it was already used for the United States.

Lack of a suitable direct translation possibly prompted consideration of alternatives. The name chosen, ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулага) olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulag 'organisation having an international union' (the -т -t in холбоот kholboot means 'with, having'), is close to the historic name of the League of Nations in Inner Mongolia, ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (Олон улсын холбоо) olon ulsiin kholboo 'international union'. The new name differs from the old only in the addition of -т -t 'with, having' and the word Байгуулага baiguulag 'organisation'.

(ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (Олон улсын холбоо) olon ulsiin kholboo 'international union' was, of course, a direct translation of the Chinese name of the League of Nations.)

The relationship among names is as follows:

League of Nations United Nations United States of America
Chinese
国际联盟
guójì liánméng
'international league/union'
联合国
liánhéguó
'allied nations, united nations'
(美利坚)合众国
měilìjiān hézhòngguó
'united masses country (of America)'
Mongolian
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ
olon ulsiin kholboo
'international union'
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulag
'international union organisation'
(ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ) ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
(amerikin) negdsen uls
'(American) united country/s'

 

♦️ UN General Assembly

Russian:
Генеральная Ассамблея
general'naya assambleya
'general assembly'
Chinese:
大会
dàhuì
'large meeting'
Japanese:
総会
sōkai
'general meeting'

The General Assembly (Assemblée Générale) is the main deliberative, policy-making, and representative organ of the UN. Its Russian name is from French: ассамблей asamblei. Chinese and Japanese call it a 会 huì / kai or 'meeting', either a 'large meeting' (Chinese) or a 'general meeting' (Japanese).

Mongolia

The UN General Assembly is known in Mongolia as:

(Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын) Ерөнхий Ассамблей
(negdsen ündestnii baiguulagin) yörönkhii asamblei
'(united nations organisation) general assamblei'

(ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ)
ᠶᠡᠷᠣᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠰᠠᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ

The Mongolian name is heavily influenced by the Russian name Генеральная Ассамблея general'naya assambleya 'general assembly'.

  • 'General' (Russian генеральная general'naya) ⇒ ерөнхий yörönkhii 'general'.
  • 'Assembly' ⇒ the Russian loan word Ассамблей asamblei.

The name is similar to the Buryat name Юрэнхи Ассамблей yurenxi assamblei 'general assamblei', also modelled on Russian.

Mongolian in China

In China, the UN General Assembly is known as:

(ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ)
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠯ

(Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулгын) Их Хурал
(olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagin) ikh khural
'(international union organisation) large meeting'

While Их Хурал ikh khural 'large meeting' is a direct translation from Chinese (大会 dàhuì 'large meeting'), it is also a traditional Mongolian term for large and significant meetings.

  • 大会 dàhuì is used in Chinese for all kinds of meetings, including mass meetings, rallies, plenary sessions, conventions, and various kinds of general meeting including shareholders' meetings. In Mongolian, их хурал ikh khural tends to be confined to larger or more significant meetings. Mongolia's parliament is known as the State Great Hural or Улсын Их Хурал ulsiin ikh khural 'state large meeting'.

 

♦️ United Nations Secretariat

Russian:
Секретариат
sekretariat
'secretariat'
Chinese:
秘书处
mìshùchù
'secretarial office'
Japanese:
事務局
jimu-kyoku
'clerical bureau'

The three names above are standard words for 'secretariat' in the three languages.

The UN Secretariat has slightly different names in Mongolia and China.

Mongolia

It is known in Mongolia as:

Нарийн Бичгийн Даргын Газар
nariin bichgiin dargin gazar
'secretarial leader place'

ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ 
ᠳᠠᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ

The Mongolian name identifies the Secretariat as the office of the Secretary General (Нарийн Бичгийн Дарга nariin bichgiin darag 'secretarial leader'.)

Mongolian in China

The name used in China is:

ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ
ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ

Нарийн Бичгийн Газар
nariin bichgiin gazar
'secretarial place'

This identifies the Secretariat simply as the secretarial office. This is in line with the Chinese name (秘书处 mìshūchù 'secretary's office').

The word used for the Secretary-General is the same on both sides:

ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ
ᠳᠠᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Нарийн Бичгийн Дарга
nariin bichgiin darag
'secretarial leader'

(Note: Buryat uses Юрэнхи секретаряа jorenkhii sekretaryaa 'general secretary' based on Russian Генеральный секретарь general'nyy sekretar'.)

 

♦️ (UN) Security Council

Russian:
Совет Безопасности
sovet bezopasnosti
'security council'
Chinese:
安全理事会 (安理会)
ānquán lǐshìhuì (ānlǐhuì)
'safety council' or 'security council'
Japanese:
安全保障理事会 (安保理)
anzen-hoshō rijikai (anpori)
'security (=safety assurance) council'

The naming of the Security Council is fairly straightforward. Note that in Chinese and Japanese there is no clear distinction between safety and security. The Chinese means simply 'safety council'; the Japanese means 'safety assurance council'.

Mongolia

In Mongolia it is known as:

Аюулгүйн зөвлөл
ayulgüin zövlöl
'security council'

ᠠᠶᠣᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠦᠪᠯᠡᠯ

Mongolian in China

Most modern sources in China (2005, 2006, 2008) adopt the same naming:

ᠠᠶᠣᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠦᠪᠯᠡᠯ

Аюулгүйн зөвлөл
ayulgüiin zövlöl
'security council'

However, an earlier Mongolian-Chinese general dictionary (1999) uses a different word for 'council':

ᠠᠶᠣᠯᠭᠦᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠦᠪᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡᠨ

Аюулгүйн зөвлөлгөөн
ayulgüiin zövlölgöön
'security council'

ᠵᠦᠪᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡᠨ (зөвлөлгөөн) zövlölgöön 'council' is conventionally used to translate the Russian word 'soviet'.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS

 

♦️ African Union

The African Union is a continental union of African countries. It was established in 2001.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Африканский союз
afrikanskiy soyuz
'African union'
Chinese:
非洲联盟
fēizhōu liánméng
'African union'
Japanese:
アフリカ連合
afurika rengō
'African union'

'African Union' is translated straightforwardly into Russian, Chinese, and Japanese. Chinese spells out that Africa is a continent (非洲 fēizhōu 'African continent'). 'Union' is rendered by different terms in the three.

Mongolia

In Mongolia the African Union is known as:

Африкийн Холбоо
afrikiin kholboo
'African union'

ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

The name reflects international usage.

  • 'Union' (Russian союз soyuz) ⇒ the general term холбоо kholboo 'union, association'.

Mongolian in China

In China, the African Union is known in (2006) as:

ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Африка Тивийн Холбоо
afrika tiviin kholboo
'African continent union'

The Inner Mongolian name is translated from the Chinese.

  • The use of ᠲᠢᠪ (тив) tiv 'continent' reflects the influence of 洲 zhōu 'continent' in Chinese and is typical of such names in (2006).
  • 'Union' (Chinese 联盟 liánméng) ⇒ the general term ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (холбоо) kholboo 'union, association'.

For other bodies known as 'unions', see ITU and UPU.

 

♦️ Arab League

The Arab League is formally known as the League of Arab States. It dates from 1945.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Лига арабских государств
liga arabskikh gosudarstv
'league of Arab states'
Chinese:
阿拉伯国家联盟
ālābó guójiā liánméng
'Arab country union'
Japanese:
アラブ諸国連盟 (アラブ連盟)
arabu shokoku renmei (arabu renmei)
'Arab various-nations union (Arab union)'

Mongolia

In Mongolia the Arab League is known as:

Арабын Улсуудын Холбоо
arabiin ulsuudiin kholboo
'arab states union'

ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

The use of the plural shows influence from the Russian:

  • 'Countries' (Russian государства gosudarstva 'states') ⇒ the plural form улсууд ulsuud 'states/countries'.
  • 'League' (Russian лига liga) ⇒ the general term холбоо kholboo 'union, association'.

Mongolian in China

In China, the Arab League is known by a similar name (2005, 2008):

ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Арабын Улсын Холбоо
arabiin ulsiin kholboo
'arab state union'

The use of the singular form may have been influenced by Chinese:

  • 'States' (Chinese 国家 guójiā) ⇒ the singular form ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (улс) uls 'state, country'.
  • 'League (Chinese 联盟 liánméng) ⇒ the general term ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (холбоо) kholboo 'union, association'.

However, another source (2006) uses the plural form of ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (улс) uls:

ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Арабын Улсуудын Холбоо
arabiin ulsuudiin kholboo
'arab states union'

 

♦️ Asian Development Bank (ADB)

The Asian Development Bank is a largly Japanese-dominated bank headquartered in the Philippines. It was established in 1966.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Азиатский банк развития
aziatskiy bank razvitiya
'Asian development bank'
Chinese:
亚洲开发银行
yàzhōu kāifā yínháng
'Asian development bank'
Japanese:
アジア開発銀行
ajia kaihatsu ginkō
'Asian development bank'

While names in all three languages above are presumably based on the English name, 'development' provides an interesting twist. 'Development' in economic terms is difficult to define, although it generally refers to the process of growing to become more mature, advanced, or elaborate. This might involve expansion by a process of growth and improvement, or it might refer to the process of making resources or land available or usable. Other Western languages (including Russian) have a similar word that widely applies to economic development in its many guises.

In Japanese and Chinese, there are at least two words for economic development: 发展 fāzhǎn / 発展 hatten, which implies a steady process of improvement in a continued upward trend, and 开发 kāifā / 開発 kaihatsu, implying an opening up of hitherto untapped potential, including land and resources. While both languages use both words, the positive connotations of the former appear to be stronger in Chinese. In the field of international institutions, Chinese usage is split between the two terms (see IBRD, IDA, IFAD, OECD, UNCTAD, and UNIDO). In Japanese, the latter is favoured for its proactive nuances, and all international organisations using the word 'development' in English use 開発 kaihatsu in Japanese. In this case, Chinese may have followed the Japanese lead based on Japan's preeminent position in the bank. Had the ABD been established by China, it would arguably have used 发展 fāzhǎn, which already has proactive nuances in Chinese.

The adoption of 开发 kāifā for the Chinese name has interesting consequences for the choice of a Mongolian translation in China.

Mongolia

The Mongolian name of the bank is:

Азийн Хөгжлийн Банк
aziin khögjliin bank
'Asian development bank'

ᠠᠽᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

Thanks to the role of Russian, this name conforms with international usage of the term 'development'.

  • 'Development' (развитие razvitiye) ⇒ хөгжил khögjil, the standard word for 'development' in Mongolia.
  • The word for 'Asia' is Ази azi, from Russian.

Mongolian in China

In China there are two separate Mongolian versions of the bank's name due to differences in the translation of 开发 kāifā 'development'.

The translation in a general Chinese-Mongolian dictionary (2005) is:

ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ
ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

Азиан нээлт банк
azian neelt bank
'Asian opening up bank'

In translating 开发 kāifā, the Mongolian name fails to express the all-important concept of 'development'.

  • 'Asia' (亚洲 yàzhōu 'Asia') ⇒ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (Азиа) azia.
  • 'Development' (开发 kāifā) ⇒ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ (нээлт) neelt, related to нээх neekh 'to open'. Нээлт neelt has a range of meanings, including 'start, opening, discovery, invention, initiation'. This is somewhat wide of the international term 'development' and appears to be based on a poor understanding of 开发 kāifā and its intent.

This problem is remedied in later sources (2006, 2008):

ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

Азиан Тивийн Нээлт Хөгжлүүлэлтийн Банк
azian tiviin neelt khögjlüüleltiin bank
'Asian continent opening and development bank'

The newer rendering shows awareness that 开发 kāifā is intended to mean 'development' but shows a continued reluctance to depart from the Chinese.

  • 开发 kāifā (开 kai 'open' + 发 'launch') ⇒ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ (нээлт хөгжлүүлэлт) neelt khögjlüülelt (нээлт neelt 'opening' + хөгжлүүлэлт khögjlüülelt 'causing development'). The latter noun is based on the verb хөгжүүлэх khögjüülekh 'cause to develop', which is the causative form of хөгжих khögjikh 'to grow, develop, prosper'. The use of the causative captures the idea that the bank is devoted to bringing about development.
  • 'Asia' (亚洲 yàzhōu) ⇒ Азиан Тив azian tiv 'Asian continent', influenced by the Chinese name (亚 'Asia' + 洲 zhōu 'continent').

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 开发 kāifā in Chinese, see IBRD and IDA.

 

♦️ APEC

In preparation.

APEC was established in 1989.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Азиатско-Тихоокеанское экономическое сотрудничество
aziatsko-tikhookeanskoye ekonomicheskoye sotrudnichestvo
'Asia-Pacificocean economic cooperation'
Chinese:
亚太经济合作组织
yàtài jīngjì hézuò zǔzhī
'Asia-Pacific economic development organisation'
Japanese:
アジア太平洋経済協力
ajia taiheiyō keizai kyōryoku
'Asia Pacific economic cooperation'

The English name lacks a word for 'organisation', presumably to produce the snappy acronym. Chinese adds the word 组织 zǔzhī 'organisation'.

Mongolia

There are a number of Mongolian names for APEC:

Ази-Hомхон Далайн Бүс Нутгийн Эдийн Засгийн Хамтын Ажиллагааны Байгууллага
azi nomkhon dalain büs nutgiin ediin zasgiin khamtiin ajillgaanii baiguulag
'Asia Pacific ocean zone lands economic cooperation organisation'

ᠠᠽᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠦᠨ
ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ

Ази-Номхон Далайн Эдийн Засгийн Хамтын Ажиллагааны байгууллага
azi nomkhon dalain ediin zasgiin khamtiin ajillagaanii baiguulag
'Asia Pacific ocean economic cooperation organisation'

ᠠᠽᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ

Ази Номхон Далайн Орнуудын Хамтын Эдийн Засгийн Байгууллага
azi nomkhon dalain ornuudiin khamtiin ediin zasgiin baiguulag
'Asia Pacific ocean countries cooperative economic organisation'

ᠠᠽᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠣᠷᠠᠨ ᠤᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ

Ази-Номхон Далайн Эдийн Засгийн Хамтын Ажиллагаа
azi nomkhon dalain ediin zasgiin khamtiin ajillagaa
'Asia Pacific ocean economic cooperation'

ᠠᠽᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ

Lack of agreement among the names suggested are due to (1) lack of the word 'organisation' in the English name, (2) difficulty in deciding on a word for 'cooperation', (3) difficulty deciding on a word to mean 'Asia-Pacific', and (4) difficulty in deciding on the correct word order.

Mongolian in China

ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠥᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Азиа Тив ба Номхон Далайн Орны Аж Ахуйн Хамтран Ажиллах Зохион Байгуулалт
azia tiv ba nomkhon dalain ornii aj akhuin khamtran ajillakh zokhion baiguulalt
'Asian continent and Pacific ocean country economic cooperating organisation'

ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ
ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠥᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Азиа Номхон Далайн Орны Аж Ахуйн Хамтран Ажиллах Зохион Байгуулалт
azia nomkhon dalain ornii aj akhuin khamtran ajillakh zokhion baiguulalt
'Asian Pacific ocean country economic cooperating organisation'

The naming in China is more unified because Mongolian is working directly off the Chinese. Terminology for 'economic', 'cooperation', and 'organisation' is different from standard usage in Mongolia.

 

♦️ Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)

The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) is an association of nations covering Southeast Asia. It was established in 1967.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Ассоциация государств Юго-Восточной Азии
assotsiatsiya gosudarstv yugo-vostochnoy azii
'association of states of south-east Asia'
Chinese:
东南亚国家协会 (东盟)
dōng-nán yà guójiā xiéhuì (dōngméng)
'east-south Asian state association' (abbreviated 'east union')
Japanese:
東南アジア諸国連合 (アセアン)
tōnan Ajia shokoku rengō
'association of various nations of east-south Asia'

Mongolia

ASEAN is known in Mongolia as:

Зүүн Өмнөд Азийн Улсуудын Холбоо
züün ömnöd aziin ulsuudiin kholboo
'east-south Asian countries union'

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠨᠦᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦ᠋ᠳ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

The plural noun улсууд ulsuud 'states, countries' suggests influence from Russian:

  • 'Nations' (государства gosudarstva) ⇒ the plural form улсууд ulsuud 'states, countries'.
  • 'Association' (ассоциация assotsiatsiya) ⇒ холбоо kholboo 'association, union'. Unlike at some other names, Mongolian does not use the Russian term for 'association' (see IDA).

Mongolian in China

In China (2005, 2008), ASEAN is given the name:

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠨᠦᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Зүүн Өмнөд Азиан Холбоо
züün ömnöd azian kholboo
'east-south Asian union'

  • This name omits ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (улс) uls 'nation'.
  • 'Association' (联盟 liánméng) ⇒ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (холбоо) kholboo 'association, union'.

Another source (2006) includes the word for 'nations':

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠨᠦᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Зүүн Өмнөд Азиан Улсын Холбоо
züün ömnöd azian ulsiin kholboo
'east-south Asian country union'

(For other organisations known as 'associations', see IATA, IDA, and IFA.)

 

♦️ Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

The Food and Agriculture Organisation is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1945.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Продовольственная и сельскохозяйственная организация
prodovol'stvennaya i sel'skokhozyaystvennaya organizatsiya
'organisation of food and agriculture'
Chinese:
粮食及农业组织
liángshí jí nóngyè zǔzhī
'grain and agriculture organisation'
Japanese:
食糧農業機関
shokuryō nōgyō kikan
'food and agriculture organ'

In China's agrarian culture, staple grain crops (粮食 liángshí) are traditionally of such importance that they are treated as synonymous with 'food'. However, even though in a broader sense 粮食 liángshí also includes beans, roots, and tubers, it is still too narrow to encompass all the food categories covered by the FAO, which include oilseeds, vegetables, fruit, and livestock products. Because of this, it has been argued that using 粮食 liángshí in naming FAO is a mistranslation of the English (e.g., at the Wikipedia Chinese article on the FAO).

Mongolia

The FAO is known in Mongolia as:

Хүнс, хөдөө аж ахуйн байгууллага
khüns, khödöö aj akhuin baiguullag
'food, agriculture organisation'

ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ᠂ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠦ
ᠠᠬᠣᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The Mongolian name follows the Russian and English names. The Mongolian word for 'agriculture' appears to be based on the Russian.

  • 'Food' (Russian продовольственный prodovol'stvennyy, adj. of продовольстие prodovol'stviye 'foodstuffs, provisions') ⇒ хүнс khüns, a broad term used for provisions, rations, or food.
  • 'Agriculture' (Russian сельскохозяйственный sel'skokhozyaystvennyy, adj. of сельское хозяйство sel'skoye khozyaystvo 'agriculture', literally 'rural economy') ⇒ хөдөө аж ахуй khödöö aj akhui, 'rural economy', a general term corresponding to English 'agriculture'. It covers both cropping and livestock raising. The expression is made up of хөдөө khödöö 'countryside' and аж ахуй aj akhui 'economy'. The Mongolian term appears to be based on the Russian.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

Mongolian in China

The name suggested in China by (2006) is:

ᠠᠮᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ
ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Ам будаа ба тариалангийн зохион байгуулалт
am budaa ba tarialangiin zokhion baiguulalt
'grain and cropping organisation'

As a literal rendition of the Chinese, the Mongolian name reflects and arguably reinforces the narrow focus on agrarian food sources:

  • 'Food' (Chinese 粮食 liángshí 'cereal, grain') ⇒ ᠠᠮᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (ам будаа) am budaa, literally 'cereal grain', which is mostly used in reference to grain crops. (In Mongolia, the normal pronunciation is амуу будаа amuu budaa).
  • 'Agriculture' (Chinese 农业 nóngyè) ⇒ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ (тариалан) tarialan, a term which refers to crop-growing and excludes the pastoral industry.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

A second version at (2008) substitutes ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠨ болон bolon for ба ba 'and'.

ᠠᠮᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠨ
ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Ам будаа болон тариалангийн зохион байгуулалт
am budaa bolon tarialangiin zokhion baiguulalt
'grain and cropping organisation'

The strong agrarian bias in the Mongolian names prescribed in China is ironic in view of the traditionally pastoral background of Mongolian culture.

 

♦️ ️International Air Transport Association (IATA)

The International Air Transport Association is an association of world airlines. It was established in 1945.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международная ассоциация воздушного транспорта
mezhdunarodnaya assotsiatsiya vozdushnogo transporta
'international association of air transport'
Chinese:
国际航空运输协会
guójì hángkōng yùnshū xiéhuì
'international aviation transport association'
Japanese:
国際航空運送協会
kokusai kōkū unsō kyōkai
'international aviation transport association'

Mongolia

In Mongolia IATA is known as:

Олон Улсын Агаарын Тээврийн Холбоо
olon ulsiin agaariin teevriin kholboo
'international air transport association'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

The Mongolian reflects both the Russian and the English:

  • 'Air transport' (Russian воздушный транспорт vozdushnyy transport 'aerial transport') ⇒ агаарын тээвэр agaariin teever 'air transport'. Агаар agaar is the normal Mongolian word for 'air'.
  • 'Association' (Russian ассоциация assotsiatsiya) ⇒ холбоо kholboo 'association, union'.

However, at least one airline uses the following name, substituting байгууллага baiguullag for холбоо kholboo:

Олон Улсын Агаарын Тээврийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin nisekhiin baiguullag
'international air transport organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

Mongolian in China

For China, source (2006) gives:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ

Олон Улсын Агаарын Тээврийн Хэлэлцээр
olon ulsiin agaariin teevriin kheleltseer
'international air transport agreement'

The name used in China is also a fairly direct translation of the English and Chinese.

  • 'Aviation transport' (Chinese 航空运输 hángkōng yùnshū 'aerial transport') ⇒ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ (агаарын тээвэр) agaariin teever 'air transport'.
  • Curiously, 'association' (Chinese 协会 xiéhuì) ⇒ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ (хэлэлцээр) kheleltseer 'agreement'.

For other organisations known as 'associations', see ASEAN, IDA, and IFA.

 

♦️ ️International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

The International Atomic Energy Agency is an international organisation associated with but not under the control of the United Nations. It was established in 1957.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международное агентство по атомной энергии (МАгАтЭ)
mezhdunarodnoye agentstvo po atomnoy energii
'international agency for atomic energy'
Chinese:
国际原子能机构
guójì yuánzi néng jīgòu
'international atomic energy agency'
Japanese:
国際原子力機関
kokusai genshiryoku kikan
'international atomic energy organ'

'Agency' (French agence) has a number of senses in English. Here it is used in the sense of an independent administrative division of government.

The Russian term агентство agentsvo 'agency' also refers to an institution that performs certain state, public or social functions.

The Chinese term 机构 jīgòu has the general meaning of 'structure, organisation, institution', and is used as a term for government organisations, both 机关 jīguān 'organ' (strictly referring to organs of state) and other broader agencies of government. Here it is clearly being used as a convenient term to render 'agency'.

Mongolia

In Mongolia the IAEA is known as:

Олон Улсын Атомын Энергийн Агентлаг (ОУАЭА)
olon ulsiin atomiin energiin agentlag
'international atomic energy agency'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠭᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠯᠢᠭ᠍

The Mongolian has been influenced by the Russian:

  • 'Atomic' (Russian атомной atomoi) ⇒ the loan word атом atom. This conforms with the international practice of distinguishing between 'atomic' (Mongolian атомын atomiin) and 'nuclear' (Mongolian цөмийн tsömiin).
  • 'Energy' (энергия energiya) ⇒ the loan word энерги energi, which is the usual term for 'energy' in Mongolian. It is a loanword from Russian.
  • 'Agency' ⇒ the partial loan word агентлаг agentlag 'agency'.

Mongolian in China

For China, source (2006) gives:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠮᠵᠢ

Олон Улсын Атомын Энергийн Байгууламж
olon ulsiin atomiin energiin baiguulamj
'international atomic energy agency'

The translator has clearly struggled to come up with an acceptable term for 'agency'.

  • 'Atomic' (Chinese 原子 yuánzi 'atom') ⇒ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ (атом) atom, conforming with the international practice of distinguishing 'atomic' (ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠦᠨ atomiin) from 'nuclear' (ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ tsömiin).
  • 'Energy' (the suffixed form 能 néng in Chinese) ⇒ the loan word ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ (энерги) energi, which, despite being from Russian, is the general term for 'energy' in Mongolian in both Mongolia and China.
  • 'Agency' (Chinese 机构 jīgòu) ⇒ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠮᠵᠢ (байгууламж) baiguulamj, a broad term referring to structures and public organisations. (The only other organisation using ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠮᠵᠢ baiguulamj is OPEC.)

 

♦️ International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is a part of the World Bank. It was established in 1944.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международный банк реконструкции и развития
mezhdunarodnyy bank rekonstruktsii i razvitiya
'international bank for reconstruction and development'
Chinese:
国际复兴开发银行
guójì fùxíng kāifā yínháng
'international renewal development bank'
Japanese:
国際復興開発銀行
kokusai fukkō kaihatsu ginkō
'international renewal development bank'

The general Chinese term for economic development is 发展 fāzhǎn. For some institutions, however, Chinese follows Japanese practice and uses the word 开发 kāifā. This term implies an opening up of hitherto untapped potential and is favoured in Japanese for its proactive nuances.

Mongolia

In Mongolia the IBRD is known as:

Олон Улсын Сэргээн Босголт, Хөгжлийн Банк (ОУСБХБ)
olon ulsiin sergeen bosgolt, khögjliin bank
'international reconstruction, development bank'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

The Mongolian name, probably based on Russian, is close to international practice.

  • 'Reconstruction' (Russian реконструкция rekonstruktsiya) ⇒ сэргээн босголт sergeen bosgolt 'reconstruction'.
  • 'Development' (Russian развитие razvitiye) ⇒ хөгжил khöjil.

A name which has some currency due to online dictionaries is:

Олон Улсын Шинэчлэлт Хөгжлийн Банк
olon ulsiin shinechlelt khöjliin bank
'international renovation development bank'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

This renders 'reconstruction' as шинэчлэлт shinechlelt meaning 'renovation'.

Mongolian in China

The name for the IBRD given in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

Олон Улсын Сэргээлт Хөгжүүлэлтийн Банк
olon ulsiin sergeelt khögjüüleltiin bank
'international reconstruction development bank'

In this case the translator has not been led astray by the nuances of the Chinese word 开发 kāifā.

  • 'Reconstruction' (Chinese 复兴 fùxíng) ⇒ сэргээлт sergeelt 'reconstruction, renewal'.
  • 'Development' (Chinese 开发 kāifā) ⇒ хөгжүүлэлт khöjüülelt 'development'. Хөгжүүлэлт khögjüülelt is a noun derived from the causative (transitive) verb хөгжүүлэх khögjüülekh 'to develop', which is in turn the causative form of хөгжих khögjikh 'to grow, develop, prosper'. This rendering stands in contrast to other attempts to systematically distinguish 开发 kāifā from 发展 fāzhǎn 'development'.

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 开发 kāifā in Chinese, see ADB and IDA.

 

♦️ ️International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)

The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1947.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международная организация гражданской авиации
mezhdunarodnaya organizatsiya grazhdanskoy aviatsii
'international civil aviation organisation'
Chinese:
国际民用航空组织
guójì mínyòng hángkōng zǔzhī
'international civilian use aviation organisation'
Japanese:
国際民間航空機関
kokusai minkan kōkū kikan
'international private air organ'

The term 'civil ' in English is defined as "relating to ordinary citizens and their concerns, as distinct from military or ecclesiastical matters". With regard to aviation, it refers to non-military aviation.

The Russian term гражданской grazhdanskoy 'civil' is from гражданин grazhdanin 'citizen' and has the similar meaning of 'non-military'.

In this case, Chinese expresses this concept with 民 mín, which was originally an ancient term referring to the 'common people' or 'subjects' of a country. In the modern era, 民 mín was taken up in Japanese and then in Chinese for 'civilian' (non-military) and 'private sector' (non-government) matters. The Chinese term 民用 mínyòng 'civilian use' arose from this background.

The difference between Western practice and Chinese/Japanese practice is reflected in the Mongolian names.

Mongolia

In Mongolia the ICAO is known as:

Олон Улсын Иргэний Нисэхийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin irgenii nisekhiin baiguullag
'international citizen's (=civilian) aviation organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

This name follows Western practice in rendering 'civil'.

  • 'Civil' (Russian гражданский grazhdanskiy) ⇒ иргэний irgenii, from иргэн irgen 'citizen', which refers to the people or citizens of a country. Иргэн irgen in Mongolia is a general equivalent to the Western concepts of 'civil' and 'civilian'.
  • 'Civil aviation' or 'civil air transport' can be rendered in Mongolian as иргэний агаарын тээвэр irgenii agaariin teever 'civil air transport'. For civil aviation, however, Mongolian also has the term иргэний нисэх irgenii nisekh 'civilian flying', using the verb нисэх nisekh 'to fly' as a noun. Literally, иргэний нисэх irgenii nisekh means 'citizens' flying (matters)'. (See the entry at ICJ for a similar phenomenon.)
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

One dictionary gives the following as the name of the ICAO, although it is of doubtful currency:

Олон Улсын Иргэний Агаарын Тээврийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin irgenii nisekhiin baiguullag
'international citizen's (=civilian) air transport organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

  • 'Civil' (Russian гражданский grazhdanskiy) ⇒ иргэний irgenii, as above.
  • 'Aviation' ⇒ агаарын тээвэр agaariin teever 'air transport'.

Mongolian in China

In China, the name of the ICAO as given in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ
ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠣᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Ардын Агаарын Тээврийн Зохион Байгуулалт
oron ulsiin ardiin agaariin teevriin zokhion baiguulalt
'international people's (=civilian) air transport organisation'

The name has been heavily influenced by the Chinese original.

  • 'Civil' (Chinese 民用 mínyòng literally 'people's use') ⇒ ардын ardiin 'of the people'. This is based on the equation of the Chinese term 民 mín 'common people, subjects' to the Mongolian word ард ard 'common people'.
  • 'Aviation' (Chinese 航空 hángkōng) ⇒ агаарын тээвэр agaariin teever 'air transport'.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

In Mongolian, the rendering of terms like 'civilian' and 'civil' has been complicated by the route of entry. The distribution and usage of terms for 'civil/civilian' in modern Mongolian reflect Russian usage in Mongolia and Chinese usage in Mongolian-speaking areas of China.

In Mongolia, which follows Russian (and thus Western) usage, 'civil' and 'civilian' are rendered by иргэн irgen 'citizen' in expressions like иргэний хууль irgenii khuul' ('civil law'; Russian гражданское право grazhdanskoye pravo), иргэний дайн irgenii dain ('civil war'; Russian гражданская война grazhdanskaya voyna), and иргэний барилга байгууламж irgenii barilg baiguulamj ('civil engineering'; Russian гражданское строитэльство grazhdanskoye stroitel'stvo).

In Chinese, the situation is more complicated.

  • For 'civil law', Chinese uses 民法 mínfǎ. This is rendered in Mongolian in China as иргэний хууль irgenii khuul' 'citizen's law'
  • For 'civil engineering (work)', Chinese uses 土木工程 tǔmù gōngchéng literally 'earth wood engineering'. This is rendered in Mongolian in China as шорой модны барилгийн ажил shoroi modnii barilgiin ajil 'earth wood engineering work'.
  • For 'civil war', Chinese uses 内战 nèizhàn literally 'internal war'. This is rendered in Mongolian in China as дотоодын дайн dotoodiin dain 'internal war'.
  • For the private or non-military sector, Chinese uses 民 mín, which is usually translated into Mongolian in China as ард ard 'people'. Mongolian in China thus renders 民用 mínyòng 'civilian use' as ардын хэрэглээ ardin khereglee 'people's use' or simply ардын ardin 'people's'.

Confusingly, 民 mín is also used in China to mean 'of the people, of the masses'. This is the normal sense of ард ard 'people' in Mongolia. It appears in words like ардчилал ardchilal 'democracy'.

 

♦️ International Court of Justice (ICJ)

The International Court of Justice is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations. It was established in 1945.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международный Суд
mezhdunarodnyy sud
'international court'
Chinese:
国际法院
guójì fǎyuàn
'international court'
Japanese:
国際司法裁判所
kokusai shihō saibansho
'international justice court'

Both Russian and Chinese names refer to the ICJ simply as the 'international court'.

The Japanese name of the ICJ, 国際司法裁判所 kokusai shihō saibansho 'international justice court', illustrates what happens when a different language is used as a base. The Japanese follows English 'International Court of Justice' in adding the word 司法 shihō 'law, justice'.

Mongolia

In Mongolia the ICJ is known as:

Олон Улсын Шүүх
olon ulsiin shüükh
'international court'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ

This follows the Russian name Международный Суд mezhdunarodnyy sud 'international court'. The word 'court' is rendered in accordance with Mongolian domestic practice.

  • In Mongolia courts are known as шүүх shüükh. Шүүх shüükh is a verb meaning 'to judge'. In the meaning 'court' it is the abbreviation of a longer form, such as the older expression шүүх таслах газар shüükh taslakh gazar 'judging and handing-down place' referring to a court of law. Шүүх shüükh can be regarded as having dropped any following nouns (such as газар gazar 'place') to function as a noun in its own right.

Mongolian in China

For China, sources (2005, 2006, 2008) give the term:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Олон Улсын Шүүх Хороо
olon ulsiin shüükh khoroo
'international court'

This follows the Chinese name of the ICJ, 国际法院 guójì fǎyuàn 'international court'.

'Court' is translated in accordance with local terminology.

  • In China, the normal term for a court of law is шүүх хороо shüükh khoroo 'judging court'. Шүүх shüükh means 'to judge' and хороо khoroo means 'enclosure; office, bureau'. Шүүх хороо shüükh khoroo is possibly modelled on Chinese 法院 fǎyuàn 'law court', which is made up of 法 'law' and 院 yuàn 'courtyard; court'. Unlike in Mongolia, the full name is always used; хороо khoroo is never dropped.

 

♦️ ️ ️ International Development Association (IDA)

The International Development Association is a financial organisation associated with the World Bank. It was established in 1960.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международная ассоциация развития
mezhdunarodnaya assotsiatsiya razvitiya
'international association for development'
Chinese:
国际开发协会
guójì kāifā xiéhuì
'international development association'
Japanese:
国際開発協会
kokusai kaihatsu kyōkai
'international development association'

In general, Chinese tends to render 'development' as 发展 fāzhǎn, a word implying steady progress based on what is there already (for example, see UNCTAD). But some bodies, like the IDA, use the term 开发 kāifā instead. 开发 kāifā is a term favoured by the Japanese and implies an opening up of hitherto untapped potential.

Mongolia

The IDA is known in Mongolia as:

Олон Улсын Хөгжлийн Ассоциаци
olon ulsiin khögjliin asotsiatsi
'international development assotsiatsi'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠰᠰᠣᠼᠢᠠᠼᠢ

  • 'Development' (Russian развитие razvítiye) ⇒ standard хөгжил khögjil. The connotations are of development and prosperity.
  • Ассоциаци asotsiatsi ('association') is borrowed directly from Russian.

Mongolian in China

In Chinese sources, the name has three different versions, mainly differing in the translation of 开发 kāifā 'development'.

The version in a general dictionary (2005) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ

Олон Улсын Нээлтийн Эвлэл
olon ulsiin neeltiin evlel
'international opening society'

  • 'Development' (Chinese 开发 kāifā) ⇒ нээлт neelt, a word related to нээх neekh 'to open' that means 'start, opening, discovery, invention, initiation'. This suggests that the translator was unaware of 开发 kāifā as equivalent to the English term 'development'.
  • 'Association' (Chinese 协会 xiéhuì) ⇒ эвлэл evlel, a native word meaning 'league' or 'association'.

The version in a legal dictionary (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠨᠡᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ

Олон Улсын Нээн Хөгжүүлэлтийн Нийгэмлэг
olon ulsiin neen khügjüüleltiin niigemleg
'international opening and development society'

  • 'Development' (Chinese 开发 kāifā) ⇒ нээн хөгжүүлэлт neen khögjüülelt, consisting of нээн neen 'opening', related to нээх neekh 'to open' and meaning 'start, opening, discovery, invention, initiation', and хөгжүүлэлт khögjüülelt 'development', a noun derived from the transitive verb хөгжүүлэх khögjüülekh 'to develop', which is in turn the causative form of the intransitive verb хөгжих khögjikh 'to grow, develop, prosper'. This attempt to remedy the awkwardness of нээлт neelt 'opening' indicates that the translator was aware that 开发 kāifā means 'development' but did not wish to abandon the Chinese distinction between 发展 fāzhǎn and 开发 kāifā.
  • 'Association' (Chinese 协会 xiéhuì) ⇒ нийгэмлэг niigemleg, a native word meaning 'society' or 'association'.

A dictionary of 'new terms' (2008) translates 国际开发协会 guójì kāifā xiéhuì as:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ
ᠨᠡᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ

Дэлхийн нээн хөгжүүлэх нийгэмлэг
delkhiin neen khögjüülekh niigemleg
'world opening developing association'

This version chooses slightly different terms again:

  • 'International' ⇒ 'world' (дэлхий delkhii). This appears to be nothing more than a careless error.
  • 'Development' (Chinese 开发 kāifā) ⇒ нээн хөгжүүлэх neen khögjüülekh, where нээн neen is a linking form of the verb нээх neekh 'to open' and хөгжүүлэх khögjüülekh is the causative (transitive) form of the intransitive verb хөгжих khögjikh 'to grow, develop, prosper'. This is the dictionary form of the verb and is here used adnominally to modify the following word meaning 'association'. This attempt to remedy the awkwardness of нээлт neelt 'opening' is similar to that used in (2006).
  • 'Association' (Chinese 协会 xiéhuì) ⇒ нийгэмлэг niigemleg 'association, society'.

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 开发 kāifā in Chinese, see ADB and IBRD.

For other organisations known as 'associations', see ASEAN, IATA, and IFA.

 

♦️ ️International Finance Corporation (IFC)

The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is part of the World Bank Group. It was established in 1956. Its mission is to provide investment, advice, and resource mobilisation to the private sector. Its shareholders are member governments who have provided paid-in capital.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международная финансовая корпорация
mezhdunarodnaya finansovaya korporatsiya
'international finance corporation'
Chinese:
国际金融公司
guójì jīnróng gōngsi
'international finance company'
Japanese:
国際金融公社
kokusai kin'yū kōsha
'international finance public-corporation'

In English and Russian, 'finance' (финансы finansy) can be used for both public and private-sector finance, although without further context will tend to refer to private-sector finance.

The Chinese and Japanese term 金融 jīnróng / kin'yū is used for private-sector finance only. The term 金融 jīnróng, literally 'money flow' or 'money circulation' originated in Japanese where it had acquired the specific meaning of 'lending money', i.e., financing within the private sector. This was later adopted by the Chinese. Both Japanese and Chinese distinguish between private sector finance (金融 jīnróng) and public sector finance (财政 cáizhèng).

'Corporation' in English can be used for both public bodies and private-sector companies. In Japanese, probably because the IFC is a public-interest organisation owned by governments, it is called a 公社 kōsha 'public-corporation', a term referring to public-sector bodies. (The same term in Chinese referred to communes.) In Chinese, on the other hand, 'corporation' is translated as 公司 gōngsi 'company'.

Mongolia

The International Finance Corporation is known in Mongolia as:

Олон Улсын Санхүүгийн Корпораци
olon ulsiin sankhüügiin korporatsi
'international finance corporation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠺᠣᠷᠫᠣᠷᠠᠼᠢ

The name is a close match to the English and the Russian.

  • 'Finance' (Russian финансовая), which includes both the public and private sectors ⇒ санхүү sankhüü, a loanword from Chinese 仓库 cāngkù 'warehouse' which also refers to both public and private finance.
  • 'Corporation' (Russian корпорация korporatsiya 'corporation') ⇒ корпораци korporatsi, directly borrowed from the Russian.

Mongolian in China

The name China in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠦᠢᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ

Олон Улсын Мөнгөн Гүйлгээний Компани
olon ulsiin möngön güilgeenii kompani
'international money circulation (=finance) company'

  • 'Finance' (Chinese 金融 jīnróng) ⇒ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠦᠢᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡ (мөнгөн гүйлгээ) möngön güilgee, literally 'money circulation'. This calque on the Chinese refers to private-sector financing.
  • 'Corporation' (Chinese 公司 gōngsī 'company') ⇒ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ (компани) kompani.

 

♦️ International Fiscal Association (IFA)

The International Fiscal Association (IFA) is a non-governmental, non-sectoral international organisation dealing with fiscal matters. It was established in 1938.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международная налоговая ассоциация
mezhdunarodnaya nalogovaya assotsiatsiya
'international taxation association'
Chinese:
国际财政协会
guójì cáizhèng xiéhuì
'international fiscal association'
Japanese:
国際財政協会
kokusai zaisei kyōkai
'international fiscal association'

The English term 'fiscal' refers specifically to government finances.

The Russian name uses налоговая nalogovaya, which can refer to taxation and also to government finances (fiscal matters).

The terms 财政 cáizhèng in Chinese and 財政 zaisei in Japanese refer specifically to government finances.

Mongolia

Websites in Mongolia give the name of the IFA as:

Олон Улсын Санхүүгийн Холбоо
olon ulsiin sankhüügiin kholboo
'international finance union'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

The name is found only in non-government websites. Unlike the Russian and English terms, the Mongolian name makes no attempt to distinguish 'fiscal' from 'financial'.

  • 'Fiscal' (Russian налоговая nalogovaya 'taxation, fiscal') ⇒ санхүү sankhüü 'financial', a loanword from Chinese 仓库 cāngkù 'warehouse'. This term can refer to either government and private-sector finance.
  • 'Association' (Russian ассоциация assotsiatsiya) ⇒ the general Mongolian term холбоо kholboo 'union, association'.
  • Since санхүү sankhüü does not distinguish between government and private-sector finance, the IFA is distinguished from the International Finance Corporation (IFC) only through the use of холбоо kholboo 'union' instead of корпораци korporatsi.

Mongolian in China

One source in China (2006) gives the Mongolian name of the IFA as:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠣ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ ᠵᠢ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ
ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Эдийн Засгийн Нийгэмлэг
olon ulsiin ediin zasgiin niigemleg
'international fiscal society'

  • 'Fiscal' (Chinese 财政 cáizhèng) ⇒ эдийн засаг ediin zasag, which in China refers to public sector finances. In Mongolia, эдийн засаг ediin zasag refers to the economy as a whole. The name would thus be interpreted as meaning 'international economic society'.
  • 'Association' (Chinese 协会 xiéhuì) ⇒ нийгэмлэг niigemleg 'society or association.'
  • Apart from 'international', there is nothing in common with the name of the International Finance Corporation.

For other organisations known as 'associations', see ASEAN, IATA, and IDA.

 

♦️ International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1977.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международный фонд сельскохозяйственного развития (МФСР)
mezhdunarodnyy fond sel'skokhozyaystvennogo razvitiya
'international fund for agricultural development'
Chinese:
国际农业发展基金 (农发基金)
guójì nóngyè fāzhǎn jījīn (nóngfā jījīn)
'international agriculture development fund
'
Japanese:
国際農業開発基金
kokusai nōgyō kaihatsu kikin
'international agricultural development fund'

Unlike the case with many international organisations, Chinese here renders 'development' as 发展 fāzhǎn, in contrast to the Japanese use of 開発 kaihatsu.

Mongolia

The IFAD is known in Mongolia as:

Хөдөө Аж Ахуйг Хөгжүүлэх Олон Улсын Сан
khödöö aj akhuig khögjüülekh olon ulsiin san
'agriculture developing international fund'

ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠣ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ ᠵᠢ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠦᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ

  • 'Agriculture' (Russian сельскохозяйственный sel'skokhozyaystvennyy, adj. of сельское хозяйство sel'skoye khozyaystvo 'agriculture', literally 'rural economy') ⇒ хөдөө аж ахуй khödöö aj akhui, literally meaning 'rural economy'. Аж ахуй aj akhui means 'economy', and is used in all senses of that term in China. In Mongolia, however, its meaning has narrowed to 'economic / productive activity', as in this expression. The normal term for 'economy' is эдийн засаг ediin zasag.
  • 'Development' (Russian развитие razvitiye) ⇒ хөгжүүлэх khögjüülekh 'cause to develop, using the causative form of the verb хөгжих khögjikh 'to develop' (intransitive). The whole structure is actually a verbal construction ('an international fund that develops agriculture'), where the object of the verb хөгжүүлэх khögjüülekh 'cause to develop' is хөдөө аж ахуй khödöö aj akhui, with an accusative ending -г -g on the noun.
  • In order to accommodate this sentence structure more naturally, олон улсын olon ulsiin 'international' is placed in front of 'fund'. The meaning is 'international fund to develop agriculture'.
  • 'Fund' (Russian фонд fond) ⇒ сан san (from Chinese 仓 cāng 'warehouse'), the usual term for 'fund' in this sense.

Mongolian in China

One source in China (2006) gives the Mongolian name of the IFAD as:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠣ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ ᠵᠢ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ
ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Хөдөө Аж Ахуйг Хөгжүүлэх Суурь Мөнгийн Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin khödöö aj akhuig khögjüülekh suur' möngiin zokhion baiguulalt
'international agriculture development fund organisation'

This is a translation of the Chinese name, but with one difference:

  • 'Agriculture' (Chinese 农业 nóngyè) ⇒ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠣ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ (хөдөө аж ахуй) khödöo aj akhui literally 'rural economy', as in Mongolia.
  • 'Development' (Chinese 发展 fāzhǎn) ⇒ the causative form of the verb хөгжих khögjikh 'to develop' (intransitive), that is хөгжүүлэх khögjüülekh 'to cause to develop'. As in the Mongolian name, this is actually a verbal construction ('an international fund that develops agriculture'), where the object of the verb хөгжүүлэх khögjüülekh 'cause to develop' is хөдөө аж ахуй khödöö aj akhui 'agriculture', with the accusative ending  ᠵᠢ on the noun.
  • 'Fund' (Chinese 基金 jījīn) ⇒ ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ (суурь мөнгө) suur' möng, a calque on Chinese 基金 jījīn 'fund', literally meaning 'base money'.
  • The name has the additional word ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt, the standard term for an organisation in China. Curiously, this is not found in the Chinese name. The addition of ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ zokhion baiguulalt possibly reflects a feeling that 'base money', which simply refers to funds, needs its status as an organisation to be indicated.

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 发展 fāzhǎn in Chinese, see OECD, UNCTAD, and UNIDO.

For other bodies known as 'funds', see IMF, UNICEF, and UNPF.

 

♦️ International Labour Organisation (ILO)

The International Labour Organisation is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was originally established in 1919.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международная организация труда
mezhdunarodnaya organizatsiya truda
'international labour organisation'
Chinese:
国际劳工组织
guójì láogōng zǔzhī
'international workers' organisation'
Japanese:
国際労働機関
kokusai rōdō kikan
'international labour organ'

English 'labour', Russian труд trud, and Japanese 労働 rōdō are all abstract nouns referring to the people who supply 'labour'.

On the other hand, Chinese uses 劳工 láogōng, a specific term meaning 'workers' or 'labourers'.

Mongolia

The ILO is known in Mongolia as:

Олон Улсын Хөдөлмөрийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin khödölmöriin baiguullag
'international labour organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

  • 'Labour' (Russian труд trud) ⇒ хөдөлмөр khödölmör 'labour', an abstract term referring to workers.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

Mongolian in China

One source in China (2006) gives the Mongolian name of the ILO as:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Ажилчны Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin ajilchnii zokhion baiguulalt
'international workers' organisation'

The name shows clear influence from Chinese.

  • Chinese 劳工 láogōng 'labourers, workers'ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠨ (ажилчин) ajilchin 'worker'. Both Chinese and Mongolian can use abstract nouns (劳动 lǎodòng 'labour' and хөдөлмөр khödölmör 'labour') to refer to workers, for example, in expressions like 'labour hygiene'. In this case, however, the Mongolian-language name follows the more specific meaning conveyed by the Chinese term.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

Note: (2008) lists the non-existent organisation 国际劳动组织 guójì láodòng zǔzhī 'international labour organisation', which it translates as:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Хөдөлмөрчдийн Зохион Байгуулалт olon ulsiin khömörchdiin zokhion baiguulalt 'international labourers' organisation'. Since this is simply the mechanical translation of a non-existent name, I exclude it from consideration.

 

♦️ International Maritime Organisation (IMO)

The International Maritime Organisation is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1948. The current name came into use in 1982.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международная морская организация
mezhdunarodnaya morskaya organizatsiya
'international sea (=marine) organisation'
Chinese:
国际海事组织
guójì hǎishì zǔzhī
'international marine matters organisation'
.
Japanese:
国際海事機関
kokusai kaiji kikan
'international marine matters organ'

English has a number of terms related to the sea, including 'nautical', 'marine', and 'maritime'. Of these, 'maritime' is particularly used with reference to commercial seafaring activity. The Russian name uses морской morskoi, which is the adjective from море more 'sea'.

In Chinese and Japanese, the concept of 'maritime' (relating to seafaring activity) is conveyed by the term 海事 hǎishì / kaiji 'sea / ocean matters / affairs'.

Mongolia

The IMO is known in Mongolia as:

Олон Улсын Далайн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin dalain baiguullag
'international ocean organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The name used in Mongolia is close to international practice.

  • 'Maritime' (Russian морской morskoi) ⇒ далайн dalain 'of the sea or ocean'.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

Mongolian in China

The term suggested for China in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Далайн Явдлын Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin dalain yavdaliin baiguulalt
'international ocean affairs organisation'

This name has clearly been influenced by the Chinese, with its additional 事 shì to indicate 'matters / affairs'.

  • 'Maritime' (Chinese 海事 hǎishì 'sea / ocean matters / affairs') ⇒ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠣᠳᠠᠯ (далайн явдал) dalain yavdal 'sea or ocean affairs'.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

 

♦️ International Monetary Fund (IMF)

The International Monetary Fund is an international organisation headquartered in Washington. It was formed in 1944.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международный валютный фонд
mezhdunarodnyy valyutnyy fond
'international currency fund'
Chinese:
国际货币基金组织
guójì huòbì jījīn zǔzhī
'international monetary fund organisation'
Japanese:
国際通貨基金
kokusai tsūka kikin
'international currency fund'

Chinese adds the word 组织 zǔzhī 'organisation' to the name.

Mongolia

The name used for the IMF in Mongolia is:

Олон Улсын Валютын Сан
olon ulsiin valyutiin san
'international currency fund'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠸᠠᠯᠶᠦᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ

  • 'Monetary' (Russian валютный valyutnyy 'related to currency') ⇒ валют valyut, borrowed directly from Russian валюта valyuta 'currency'. This word is shared by a number of languages of the old Soviet Union, which have borrowed the term валюта valyuta and use it in the name of the IMF.
  • 'Fund' (Russian фонд fond) ⇒ сан san, a Mongolian word that originally meant 'treasury, storehouse' (from Chinese 仓 cāng 'warehouse') and is now broadly used for the national fisc, fiscal and financial matters, cash reserves, and as an equivalent to 'fund' or 'foundation'.

Mongolian in China

The name of the IMF as found in (2006, 2008) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠭᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ
ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Зоосны Суурь Мөнгөний Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin zoosnii suur' möngönii zokhion baiguulalt
'international monetary base-money organisation'

  • 'Monetary' (Chinese 货币 huòbì) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠭᠣᠰ (зоос) zoos, a native Mongolian term for coins, or in a broader sense money. (The word зоос zoos is in common use in Inner Mongolia to refer to money where Mongolia would mostly use мөнгө möng, originally 'silver'.)
  • 'Fund' (Chinese 基金 jījīn) ⇒ ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ (суурь мөнгө) suur' möng 'foundation money', a calque on the Chinese term 基金 jījīn (Japanese 基金 kikin) meaning 'fund, foundation'. 基金 jījīn literally means 'base money' or 'foundation money'. In the country of Mongolia, however, суурь мөнгө suur' möng ('base money') is usually understood as the capital needed for a business to operate. In economics it can also mean 'base money'.
  • ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation' is added to the Mongolian name in imitation of the Chinese.

For other bodies known as 'funds', see IFAD, UNICEF, and UNPF.

 

♦️ ️International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is a specialised agency of the United Nations, originally established in 1865.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Международный союз электросвязи
mezhdunarodnyy soyuz elektrosvyazi
'international union of telecommunications'
Chinese:
国际电信联盟
guójì diànxìn liánméng
'international electric-communications league / union'
Japanese:
国際電気通信連合
kokusai denki tsūshin rengō
'international electric communications union'

Both the Russian and Chinese terms for 'telecommunications' contain elements meaning 'electric' (электро elektro, 电 diàn) rather than 'tele' (far) as in English.

Mongolia

The ITU is known in Mongolia as:

Олон Улсын Цахилгаан Холбооны Байгууллага
olon ulsiin tsakhilgaan kholboonii baiguullag
'international electric communications organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

  • 'Telecommunications' (Russian электросвязь elektrosvyaz') ⇒ цахилгаан холбоо tsakhilgaan kholboo 'electric connections', as in the Russian.
  • Unlike the Russian, Mongolian uses the term 'organisation' (байгууллага baiguullag) in preference to 'union'.

Curiously, the ITU previously had a different name in Mongolian:

Олон Улсын Цахилгаан Холбоо
olon ulsiin tsakhilgaan kholboo
'international electric connections'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

  • Since the term Цахилгаан Холбоо tsakhilgaan kholboo 'electric communications' means 'telecommunications', холбоо kholboo 'connections, union' appears to be doing double duty to render both 'communications' and 'union'.

Mongolian in China

In Chinese sources (2006), the organisation is known as:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Олон Улсын Цахилгаан Холбооны Холбоо
olon ulsiin tsakhilgaan kholboonii kholboo
'international electric communications union'

  • 'Telecommunications' (Chinese 电信 diànxìn) ⇒ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (цахилгаан холбоо) tsakhilgaan kholboo meaning 'electric connection'. This is the same as the term used in Mongolia.
  • 'Union' (Chinese 联盟 liánméng) ⇒ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (холбоо) kholboo 'union', yielding the awkward sequence холбооны холбоо, literally 'union union' or 'connection connection' (or 'connection union').

For other bodies known as 'unions', see AU and UPU.

 

♦️ ️North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty. The treaty was signed in 1949. It is known in French as Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Организация Североатлантического договора
organizatsiya severoatlanticheskogo dogovora
'north-atlantic treaty organisation'
Chinese:
北大西洋公约组织
běi dàxīyáng gōngyuē zǔzhī
'north Atlantic ocean pact organisation'
Japanese:
北大西洋条約機構
kita taiseiyō jōyaku kikō
'north Atlantic ocean treaty organisation'

In Western languages, it is normal to refer simply to the 'North Atlantic', omitting the word 'ocean'. In Chinese and Japanese, where the Atlantic is known as the 大西洋 dàxīyáng / taiseiyō, literally the 'Great Western Ocean', it is normal to always include 洋 yáng / yō 'ocean'.

The term 'treaty' (traité) is a general term for official agreements between states. Russian uses договора dogovora and Japanese 条約 jōyaku, which are similarly general terms. However, Chinese uses 公约 gōngyuē, literally 'public treaty', referring specifically to pacts or joint pledges.

Mongolia

NATO is known in Mongolia as:

Умард Атлантын Гэрээний Байгууллага
umard atlantiin gereenii baiguullag
'north atlantic treaty organisation'

ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠦᠨ
ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

This is a straightforward rendition of the English/Russian:

  • Mongolian has more than one word for 'north'. The North Atlantic Ocean is known either as Умард Атлантын Далай umard atlantiin dalai 'north Atlantic ocean' or Хойт Атлантын Далай khoit atlantiin dalai 'north Atlantic ocean'. The form used here is умард umard 'north'. As in English and Russian, 'ocean' is omitted from the name.
  • 'Treaty' (Russian договор dogovor) ⇒ гэрээ geree, a general word for a treaty or agreement.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

Note that Buryat Wikipedia calls NATO Хойто Атлантын Хэрээнэй Байгуулга khoito atlantiin khereenei baiguulga 'north Atlantic treaty organisation'.

Mongolian in China

In China, names for NATO tend to be overliteral translations of the Chinese.

In the general Chinese dictionary at (2005), it is rendered as:

ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠦᠨ
ᠨᠡᠢᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Умард Атлантын Нийтийн Гэрээний Зохион Байгуулалт
umard atlantiin niitiin gereenii zokhion baiguulalt
'north atlantic public treaty organisation'

This follows the Chinese in rendering the word for treaty.

  • 'North Atlantic' (Chinese 北大西洋 běi dàxīyáng literally 'north great-western-ocean') ⇒ ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ (Умард Атлант) umard atlant 'north Atlantic'. The Mongolian omits the word for 'ocean' (Chinese 洋 yáng).
  • 'Treaty' (Chinese 公约 gōngyuē) ⇒ ᠨᠡᠢᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ (нийтинн гэрээ) niitiin geree 'public treaty'. ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ (гэрээ) geree 'treaty' would have been sufficient to render 'treaty'.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

In (2006), the organisation is given as:

ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠦᠨ
ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Умард Атлантын Гэрээний Зохион Байгуулалт
umard atlantiin gereenii zokhion baiguulalt
'north atlantic treaty organisation'

This version is closest to the international (Western) naming.

  • In this version, 'treaty' (Chinese 公约 gōngyuē) ⇒ the single word ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ (гэрээ) geree 'treaty'.

The version given in (2008) as part of the expression 'NATO's expansion east' is:

ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠨᠡᠢᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Умард Атлантын Далайн Нийтийн Гэрээний Зохион Байгуулалт
umard atlantiin dalain niitiin gereenii zokhion baiguulalt
'north atlantic ocean public treaty organisation'

This slavishly follows the Chinese in using both ᠨᠡᠢᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ (нийтинн гэрээ) niitiin geree 'public treaty' and 'ocean'.

 

♦️ Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is an intergovernmental economic organisation. It was formed in 1961.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Организация экономического сотрудничества и развития
organizatsiya ekonomicheskogo sotrudnichestva i razvitiya
'organisation for economic cooperation and development'
Chinese:
经济合作与发展组织
jīngjì hézuò yǔ fāzhǎn zǔzhī
'economic cooperation and development organisation'
Japanese:
経済協力開発機構
keizai kyōryoku kaihatsu kikō
'economic cooperation development organisation'

This a case where Chinese and Japanese diverge over the rendering of 'development', Chinese using 发展 fāzhǎn and Japanese using 開発 kaihatsu. While both are used as translations of 'development' in Chinese and Japanese, Japanese has a preference for 開発 kaihatsu 'opening up and development' due to its proactive meaning.

Mongolia

The OECD is known in Mongolia as:

Эдийн Засгийн Хамтын Ажиллагаа Хөгжлийн Байгууллага
ediin zasgiin khamtiin ajillagaa khögjliin baiguullag
'economic cooperation development organisation'

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠣ  ᠵᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

  • 'Economic' (Russian экономический ekonomicheskiy) ⇒ эдийн засаг ediin zasag, the standard word for 'economy' in Mongolia. In China, эдийн засаг ediin zasag is used more narrowly to refer to public finances or fiscal matters and the name would be interpreted as 'Organisation for Fiscal Cooperation and Development'.
  • 'Cooperation' (Russian сотрудничество sotrudnichestvo) ⇒ хамтын ажиллагаа khamtiin ajillagaa, literally 'working together'.
  • 'Development' (Russian развитие razvitiye) ⇒ хөгжил khögjil, the standard term for 'development' in Mongolia.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.
  • The Mongolian name does not translate the word 'and' (English) or и i (Russian).

Mongolian in China

The name recommended for China (listed only at (2006)) differs at almost every point.

ᠠᠵᠣ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠣᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Аж Ахуйн Хамтралцаа ба Хөгжүүлэлтийн Зохион Байгуулалт
aj akhuin khamtraltsaa ba khögjüüleltiin zokhion baiguulalt
'economic cooperation and development organisation' (2006)

  • 'Economic / economy' (Chinese 经济 jīngjì) ⇒ ᠠᠵᠣ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ (аж ахуй) aj akhui, the standard word for 'economy' in China.
  • 'Cooperation' (Chinese 合作 hézuò) ⇒ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠣᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (хамтралцаа) khamtraltsaa. This is not the recommended term for 'cooperation' in Chinese dictionaries, which is ᠬᠣᠷᠰᠢᠬᠤ (хорших) khoshikh or ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ (хамтран ажиллах) khamtran ajillakh for the verb 'to cooperate', and ᠬᠣᠷᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ (хоршоолол) khorshoolol for the noun 'cooperation'. In fact, it is not found in dictionaries at all and appears to have been coined based on ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ (хамтрах) khamtrakh 'to cooperate'.
  • 'Development' (Chinese 发展 fāzhǎn) ⇒ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ (хөгжүүлэлт) khögjüülelt. The usual term for 'development' used in China is ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ (хөгжилт) khögjilt, based on the verb ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠬᠦ (хөгжих) khögjikh 'to develop, prosper'. The noun ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ (хөгжүүлэлт) khögjüülelt as used here is built on the causative form of the verb, ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ (хөгжүүлэх) khögjüülekh 'to cause to develop', implying that the aim of the organisation is to promote development.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.
  • уǔ 'and'ᠪᠠ (ба) ba 'and'.

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 发展 fāzhǎn in Chinese, see IFAD, UNCTAD, and UNIDO.

 

♦️ ️Organisation of American States (OAS)

The Organisation of American States is a regional organisation for countries in the Americas. It was established in 1948.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Организация американских государств
organizatsiya amerikanskikh gosudarstv
'organisation of American states'
Chinese:
美洲国家组织
měizhōu guójiā zǔzhī
'Americas state organisation'
Japanese:
米州機構
beishū kikō
'Americas organisation'

Here, 'American' refers not to the United States (as it does in casual speech) but to the Americas, including the two continents of North and South America. In Chinese and Japanese, this is captured by treating the whole as a single continent (洲 zhōu or 州 shū).

Mongolia

The OAS is known in Mongolia as:

Америкийн Улсуудын Байгууллага
amerikiin ulsuudiin baiguullag
'American states organisation'

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

This name follows the Russian:

  • 'American' (Russian американский amerikanskiy) ⇒ Америкийн amerikiin 'American', as in the Russian name. No attempt is made to distinguish between country and continent.
  • 'States' (Russian государств gosudarstv) ⇒ улсууд ulsuud 'state' (plural), also as in the Russian.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

Mongolian in China

There are two versions of this name in Chinese dictionaries. In (2005) it is given as:

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠲᠦᠷᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Америка Тивийн Төрийн Зохион Байгуулалт
amerika tiviin ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'American continent polity organisation'

The two versions in general follow the Chinese:

  • 'American', pertaining to the Americas (Chinese 美洲 měizhōu) ⇒ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ (Америка тив) amerika tiv 'American continent'. This follows the Chinese usage.
  • 'States' (Chinese 国家 guójiā) ⇒ ᠲᠦᠷᠦ (төр) tör, a formal term for a state or polity.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

In (2006) it is given as:

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Америка тивийн Улсуудын Зохион Байгуулалт
amerika tiviin ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'American continent states organisation'

  • This version uses ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ (улсууд) ulsuud, the plural form of ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (улс) uls, the more common term for a state or country.

 

♦️ ️Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an organisation of petroleum exporting countries founded in 1960.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Организация стран-экспортеров нефти
organizatsiya stran-eksportorov nefti
'organisation of oil exporting countries'
Chinese:
石油输出国组织
shíyóu shūchū-guó zǔzhī
'oil export country organisation'
Japanese:
石油輸出国機構
sekiyu yushutsu-koku kikō
'oil export country organisation'

Russian follows English with страна strana 'country' in preference to государство gosudarstvo 'state'. Стран stran is the plural genitive of страна strana and here forms the compound стран-экспортеров stran-eksportorov 'exporter country'.

China uses 国 guó 'country, state' in the expression 输出国 shūchū-guó 'exporting country'. Note the use of 输出 shūchū for 'export' rather than the more common term 出口 chūkǒu. 输出 shūchū, which in Japanese is the normal term for 'export' (輸出 yushutsu), is regarded in Chinese as fancier than 出口 chūkǒu.

Mongolia

OPEC is known in Mongolia as:

Газрын Тос Экспортлогч Орнуудын Байгууллага
gazriin tos eksportlogch ornuudiin baiguullag
'petroleum exporter countries organisation'

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ
ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ
ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The Mongolian name follows the Russian fairly closely. This includes the use of the Russian loanword for 'export' and the choice of word for country.

  • Экспортлогч eksportlogch is the usual translation of 'exporter' in Mongolia. It is an agent noun formed from the verb экспортлох eksportlokh, which is a loan word.
  • 'Country' (Russian страна strana) ⇒ орон oron 'country, land', which has less formal connotations than улс uls 'state, country'. Like English and Russian, Mongolian uses the plural form, орнууд ornuud 'countries'.
  • 'Petroleum' (Russian нефть neft') ⇒ газрын тос gazriin tos, literally 'earth oil', the normal Mongolian term for petroleum.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

Mongolian in China

OPEC does not have a single name in Mongolian dictionaries in China. Sources give it three slightly different names involving interesting choices.

The Mongolian version given in (2005) is:

ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ
ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠣ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠮᠵᠢ

Чулуун Тос Гаргах Улсуудын Байгууламж
chuluun tos gargakh ulsuudiin baiguulamj
'petroleum exporting countries' agency/structure'

Mongolian in China uses different terminology for words like 'petroleum' and 'export', as seen in the translation.

  • 'Petroleum' (Chinese 石油 shíyóu) ⇒ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ (чулуун тос) chuluun tos, literally 'rock oil', the normal term for 'petroleum' in Mongolian as used in China. This is transparently derived from Chinese 石油 shíyóu 'rock oil = petroleum', which was coined (possibly by the Japanese) on basis of the English term 'petroleum', which comes from mediaeval Latin petroleum, from Latin petra 'rock' + oleum 'oil'.
  • 'Export' (Chinese 输出 shūchū) ⇒ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ (гаргах) gargakh 'to cause to go out, send out, etc.'. ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ gargakh is a transitive verb corresponding to the intransitive verb ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ гарах garakh 'to go out'. More narrowly, ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ gargakh can mean 'to export', abbreviated from the full form ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ (гадаадад гаргах) gadaadad gargakh literally 'to send out to foreign countries'. Mongolian in China does not use the loan word ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠬᠤ (экспортлох) eksportlokh. ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ gargakh here modifies the following word ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ (улсууд) ulsuud 'states, countries'.
  • 'Country' (Chinese 国 guó) ⇒ улсууд ulsuud, the plural form of улс uls meaning 'state' or 'country'. In Chinese conceptions, 国 guó (or 国家 guójiā 'nation') is closer in meaning to 'state' than to 'country'.
  • In a departure from normal practice, 'organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠮᠵᠢ (байгууламж) baiguulamj, meaning 'structure, organisation'. The use of this word may be due to a feeling that OPEC is not strictly speaking an 'international organisation' in the same way as the United Nations or other bodies. The only other organisation to use ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠮᠵᠢ baiguulamj is the International Atomic Energy Agency.

The Mongolian version given in (2006) is:

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ
ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ  ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Гадаадад Чулуун Тос Гаргадаг Улсуудын Зохион Байгуулалт
gadaadad chuluun tos gargadag ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'overseas petroleum exporting countries' organisation'

Differences from the earlier form include:

  • 'Export' (Chinese 输出 shūchū ⇒ the full form ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ  ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ (гадаадад гаргах) gadaadad gargakh, where гадаадад gadaadad means 'to foreign countries' and гаргах gargakh 'to put out, send out' is the transitive form of гарах garakh 'to go out'.
  • Гадаадад gadaadad 'to foreign countries' is separated from гаргах gargakh 'to put out, send out' and placed at the head of the name.
  • Гаргах gargakh is in the habitual form гаргадаг gargadag, representing an action that occurs habitually. It modifies the following word улсууд ulsuud 'states, countries'.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ зохион байгуулалт zokhin baiguulalt 'organisation'.

The Mongolian version given in (2008) is:

ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ
ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Чулуун Тос Гадаадад Гаргадаг Улсуудын Зохион Байгуулалт
chuluun tos gadaadad gargadag ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'petroleum overseas-exporting countries' organisation'

  • This is virtually identical to (2006), except that гадаадад gadaadad 'to foreign countries' is placed directly before гаргадаг gargadag '(habitually) sending out'.

The three names are united by their use of чулуун тос chuluun tos for 'petroleum', the use of (гадаадад) гаргах (gadaadad) gargakh for 'export', and the use of улсууд ulsuud for 'countries'.

The main differences among them consist in the inclusion and/or placing of гадаадад gadaadad 'to foreign countries', the aspect of the verb гаргах gargakh (plain or habitual), and the word used for 'organisation'.

 

♦️ United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues. It was established in 1964.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Конференция Организации Объединенных Наций по торговле и развитию
konferentsiya organizatsii ob"yedinennykh natsiy po torgovle i razvitiyu
'united nations conference on trade and development'
Chinese:
联合国贸易和发展会议
liánhéguó màoyì hé fāzhǎn huìyì
'united nations trade and development conference'
Japanese:
国連貿易開発会議
kokuren bōeki kaihatsu kaigi
'UN trade development conference'

In this case, Chinese and Japanese use different words to render 'development'. (See ADB). Russian uses the dative form of развитию razvitiyu to render what is expressed by English 'on'. Chinese and Japanese use an attributive form, i.e., 'trade and development conference'.

Mongolia

UNCTAD is known in Mongolia as:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Худалдаа, Хөгжлийн Бага Хурал
negdsen ündestnii baiguulagiin khudaldaa, khögjliin bag khural
'UN trade, development conference (=little meeting)'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠳᠠᠯᠳᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠯ

The Mongolian name deploys standard terminology for the words 'trade', 'development', and 'conference'. It slightly simplifies the English ("on trade and development") and the Russian (dative form развитию razvitiyu) by using a straight attributive ("trade and development conference"). It omits the 'and' that is inserted between 'trade' and 'development' in the English and Russian.

  • 'Trade' (Russian торговля torgovlya 'trade') ⇒ худалдаа khudaldaa, the standard word for 'trade' in Mongolia. In China, худалдаа khudaldaa is used in the closely-related sense of 'commerce'.
  • 'Development' (Russian развитие razvitiye 'development') ⇒ the standard term хөгжил khögjil 'development'.
  • 'Conference' (Russian конференция konferentsia) ⇒ the standard translation equivalent, бага хурал bag khural 'little meeting'.

Mongolian in China

The name suggested for China in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠣᠭᠠᠨ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Арилжаа ба Жөгжүүлэлтийн Хуралдаан
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin æraljaa ba khögjüülelltiin khuraldaan
'UN trade and development conference'

The name substitutes local standardised terminology for the Chinese terms. It retains 'and' between 'trade' and 'development' as per the Chinese.

  • 'Trade' (Chinese 贸易 màoyì) ⇒ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (арилжаа) æraljaa, the standard equivalent for 贸易 màoyì 'trade' in China. In Mongolia, арилжаа æraljaa refers to the closely related concept of 'commerce'.
  • 'Development' (Chinese 发展 fāzhǎn) ⇒ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ (хөгжлүүлэлт) khögjlüülelt 'development', a noun based on the causative verb ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ (хөгжлүүлэх) khögjlüülekh 'to cause to develop'. This captures the nuance that UNCTAD is devoted to promoting development.
  • 'Conference' (Chinese 会议 huìyì) ⇒ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠣᠭᠠᠨ (хуралдаан) khuraldaan, the standard equivalent for 会议 huìyì 'conference' used in China.

A later source (2008) has several minor differences:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠣᠭᠠᠨ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Арилжаа болон Жөгжилтийн Хуралдаан
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin æraljaa bolon khögjiltiin khuraldaan
'UN trade and development conference'

  • 'Development' (Chinese 发展 fāzhǎn) ⇒ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ хөгжилт khögjilt 'development', a standard translation of the Chinese term. This is based on the verb ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠬᠦ (хөгжих) 'develop (intransitive)', which is also the base for the Mongolian term хөгжил khögjil 'development'.
  • ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠨ (болон) bolon is substituted for ᠪᠠ (ба) ba 'and'.

The main differences between the Mongolian name used in Mongolia and those recommended for China are not a reflection of differences in the Russian or Chinese names, nor do they reflect any deep semantic differences. They are purely the result of different standardised terminology adopted in Mongolia and China for words like 'trade'; 'development'; and 'conference'.

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 发展 fāzhǎn in Chinese, see IFAD, OECD, and UNIDO.

 

♦️ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is a major specialised body of the United Nations. It was established in 1945.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Организации Объединённых Наций по вопросам образования, науки и культуры
organizatsii ob"yedinonnykh natsiy po voprosam obrazovaniya, nauki i kul'tury
'united nations organisation for education, science and culture'
Chinese:
联合国教育科学及文化组织 (教科文组织)
liánhéguó jiàoyù kēxué jí wénhuà zǔzhī (jiàokē wén zǔzhī)
'united nations education science and culture organisation'
Japanese:
国連教育科学文化機関
kokuren kyōiku kagaku bunka kikan
'UN education science culture organ'

All three names feature standardised equivalents for the international terms 'education', 'science', and 'culture'.

Mongolia

UNESCO is known in Mongolia as:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Боловсрол, Шинжлэх Ухаан, Соёлын Байгууллага
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin bolovsrol, shinjlekh ukhaan, soyoliin baiguullag
'UN education, science, culture organisation'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠣᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ
ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

Apart from 'UN', the four components of this name are:

  • 'Education' (Russian вопросам образования voprosam obrazovaniya) ⇒ боловсрол bolovsrol, the standard translation of 'education'. The meaning encompasses both training and education.
  • 'Science' (Russian наука nauka) ⇒ шинжлэх ухаан shinjlekh ukhaan, the standard translation of 'science'.
  • 'Culture' (Russian культура kul'tura) ⇒ соёл soyol, the standard translation equivalent of 'culture'.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

Mongolian in China

The Mongolian version recommended for China by (2008) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨ
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠵᠢᠯ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулгын Сурган Хүмүүжил Шинжлэх Ухаан Соёлын Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulgin surgal khümüüjil shinjlekh ukhaan soyoliin zokhion baiguulalt
'UN education science culture organisation'

(2008) differs only in the addition of a word for 'and':

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨ
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠵᠢᠯ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠨ ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулгын Сурган Хүмүүжил Шинжлэх Ухаан болон Соёлын Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulgin surgal khümüüjil shinjlekh ukhaan bolon soyoliin zokhion baiguulalt
'UN education science and culture organisation'

Apart from the name of the UN, the main difference from the Mongolian name involves the use of a different standardised term for 'education'.

  • 'Education' (Chinese 教育 jiàoyù) ⇒ ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠵᠢᠯ (сурган хүмүүжил surgan khümüüjil or сурган хөмүүжил surgan khömüüjil). ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠵᠢᠯ surgan khümüüjil is made up of two words meaning 'teaching' and 'upbringing / breeding'. It is thus very close in structure and concept to the Chinese word for education, 教育 jiàoyù literally 'teaching upbringing', and may be a calque on the Chinese term.
  • 'Science' (Chinese 科学 kēxué) ⇒ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (шинжлэх ухаан) shinjlekh ukhaan, the same as in Mongolia.
  • 'Culture' (Chinese 文化 wénhuà) ⇒ ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠯ (соёл) soyol, the same as in Mongolia.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

 

♦️ United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations program providing humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries. It was established in 1946.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Детский фонд ООН (Организации Объединённых Наций)
detskiy fond oon (organizatsii ob"yedinennykh natsiy)
'children's fund UNO (united nations organisation)'
Chinese:
联合国儿童基金会
liánhéguó értóng jījīn-huì
'united nations children fund society'
Japanese:
国連児童基金
kokuren jidō kikin
'UN children's fund'

The Chinese adds 会 huì meeting, society', possibly because 基金 jījīn is felt to refer purely to a fund of money rather than an organisation.

Mongolia

UNICEF is known in Mongolia as:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Хүүхдийн Сан
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin khüükhdiin san
'united nations organisation children's fund'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠡᠣᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ

The Mongolian is basically the same as English and Russian.

  • 'Children's' (Russian детский detskiy) ⇒ хүүхдийн khüükhdiin, the genitive of хүүхэд khüükhed 'children'.
  • 'Fund' (Russian фонд fond) ⇒ сан san (from Chinese 仓 cāng 'warehouse'), the standard term for 'fund'.

Mongolian in China

The term for Mongolian in China recommended in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ  ᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ
ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Хүүхдийн Суурь Мөнгөний Нийгэмлэг
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin khüükhdiin suur' möngnii niigemleg
'international union organisation children's fund society'

The Mongolian follows the Chinese, both in the term used for 'fund' and in the addition of a word meaning 'society'.

  • 'Children's' (Chinese 儿童 értóng) ⇒ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ (хүүхэд) khüükhed.
  • 'Fund' (Chinese 基金 jījīn 'foundation money') ⇒ ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ (суурь мөнгө) suur' möng 'foundation money'. The Mongolian term is a calque of Chinese 基金 jījīn 'foundation money' (Japanese 基金 kikin). In Mongolia, суурь мөнгө suur' möng is usually understood as the capital needed for a business to operate. In economics it can also mean 'base money'.
  • Chinese 会 huì 'society, association, meeting'ᠨᠡᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ (нийгэмлэг) niigemleg 'society'.

For other bodies known as 'funds', see IFAD, IMF, and UNPF.

 

♦️ United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)

The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1966.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Организация Объединённых Наций по промышленному развитию (ЮНИДО)
organizatsiya ob"yedinonnykh natsiy po promyshlennomu razvitiyu
'united nations organisation for industrial development'
Chinese:
联合国工业发展组织
liánhéguó gōngyè fāzhǎn zǔzhī
'united nations industrial development organisation'
Japanese:
国連工業開発機関
kokuren kōgyō kaihatsu kikan
'UN industrial development organ'

In this case, Chinese and Japanese use different words to render 'development'. (See ADB).

Mongolia

UNIDO is known in Mongolia as:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Үйлдвэр Хөгжлийн Байгууллага
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin üildver khögjliin baiguullag
'UN industrial development organisation'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠣᠷᠢ  ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The name is a straightforward translation of the Russian and thus the English.

  • 'Industrial' (Russian промышленный promyshlennyy) ⇒ үйлдвэр üildver 'industry', which is a term used to translate 'industry'.
  • 'Development' (Russian развитию razvitiyu) ⇒ хөгжил khögjil 'progress', from the verb хөгжих khögjikh 'progress, prosper', the normal term for 'development' in Mongolia.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

Mongolian in China

In China, the term recommended in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ
ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠣᠷᠢ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Аж Үйлдвэрийг Хөгжүүлэх Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin aj üildveriig khögjüülekh zokhion baiguulalt
'UN organisation which develops industry'

The translators have created an explanatory name for Mongolian using a verbal construction meaning 'which develops industry' or 'to develop industry'. The object of the verb ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ (хөгжүүлэх) khögjüülekh 'cause to develop' is ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠣᠷᠢ (аж үйлдвэр) aj üildver 'industry', which thus takes the accusative ending  ᠵᠢ.

  • 'Industrial' (Chinese 工业 gōngyè) ⇒ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠣᠷᠢ (аж үйлдвэр) aj üildver, the generally accepted term for 'industry' in China.
  • 'Develop' (Chinese 发展 fāzhǎn) ⇒ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ (хөгжүүлэх) khögjüülekh 'to cause to develop', the causative form of the verb ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠬᠦ (хөгжих) khögjikh 'to develop' (intransitive).
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 发展 fāzhǎn in Chinese, see IFAD, OECD, and UNCTAD.

 

♦️ United Nations Population Fund (UNPF)

The United Nations Population Fund is a specialised agency of the United Nations that was established in 1969.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Фонд ООН в области народонаселения (ЮНФПА)
fond OON v oblasti narodonaseleniya
'united nations fund in the field of population
Chinese:
联合国人口基金
liánhéguó rénkǒu jījīn
'united nations population fund'
Japanese:
国連人口基金
kokuren jinkō kikin
'united nations population fund'

Mongolia

The UNPF is known in Mongolia as:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Хүн Амын Сан
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin khün amiin san
'UN population fund'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ 
ᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ

  • 'Population' (Russian народонаселение narodonaseleniye) ⇒ Mongolian хүн ам khun am 'population' (literally 'person-mouth'), which is modelled on Chinese 人口 rénkǒu. (Mongolian does not render в области v oblasti 'in the field of').
  • 'Fund' (Russian фонд fond) ⇒ сан san (from Chinese 仓 cāng 'warehouse'), the standard term for 'fund'.

Mongolian in China

In China, the term recommended in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ 
ᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Хүн Амын Суурь Мөнгө
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin khün amiin suur' möng
'UN population fund'

  • 'Population' (Chinese 人口 rénkǒu) ⇒ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ (хүн ам) khun am 'population' (literally 'person-mouth'), a term which is modelled on Chinese 人口 rénkǒu.
  • 'Fund' (Chinese 基金 jījīn 'foundation money') ⇒ ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ (суурь мөнгө) suur' möng 'foundation money'. The Mongolian term is a calque of Chinese 基金 jījīn 'foundation money' (Japanese 基金 kikin). In Mongolia, суурь мөнгө suur' möng is usually understood as the capital needed for a business to operate. In economics it can also mean 'base money'.
  • In line with the Chinese name, the Mongolian name does not add ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation' or ᠨᠡᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ (нийгэмлэг) niigemleg 'society' after ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ (суурь мөнгө) suur' möng 'fund'.

For other bodies known as 'funds', see IFAD, IMF, and UNICEF.

 

♦️ ️Universal Postal Union (UPU)

The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1884.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Всемирный почтовый союз
vsemirnyy pochtovyy soyuz
'world postal union'
Chinese:
万国邮政联盟
wànguó yóuzhèng liánméng
'universal (=ten-thousand countries) postal union'
Japanese:
万国郵便連合
bankoku yūbin rengō
'universal (=ten thousand countries) postal union'

For 'universal', Russian uses the term всемирный vsemirnyy 'world'.

Chinese and Japanese use the term 万国 wànguó / bankoku literally 'ten-thousand countries'. While 万国 is still a current term, it is now seldom used in the name of organisations.

Mongolia

The UPU is known in Mongolia as:

Дэлхийн Шуудангийн Холбооны Байгууллага
delkhiin shuudangiin kholboonii baiguullag
'world postal union organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠰᠢᠣᠳᠠᠨ ᠦ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠠᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

This is a translation of the Russian, but adds 'organisation' at the end.

  • 'Universal' (Russian всемирный vsemirnyy 'world') ⇒ дэлхийн delkhiin 'world', in line with the Russian.
  • 'Postal' (Russian почтовый pochtovyy) ⇒ шуудан shuudan 'post'.
  • 'Union' (Russian союз soyuz) ⇒ холбоо kholboo 'union'.

Previously UPU was known as:

Дэлхийн Шуудангийн Холбоо
delkhiin shuudangiin kholboo
'world postal union'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠰᠢᠣᠳᠠᠨ ᠦ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

  • The old name was a direct rendition of the Russian and the English, before the word байгууллага baiguullag 'organisation' was added.

Mongolian in China

In China, the term recommended in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠢᠣᠳᠠᠨ ᠦ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Олон Улсын Шуудангийн Холбоо
olon ulsiin shuudangiin kholboo
'international postal union'

  • 'Universal' (Chinese 万国 wànguó literally 'ten-thousand countries') ⇒ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ (олон улсын) olon ulsiin 'of many countries', the standard word for 'international' in Mongolian.
  • 'Postal' (Chinese 邮政yóuzhèng) ⇒ ᠰᠢᠣᠳᠠᠨ (шуудан) shuudan 'post'.
  • 'Union' (Chinese 联盟 liánméng) ⇒ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (холбоо) kholboo 'association, union'.

The differing rendition of 'universal' in Russian and Chinese has given rise to different terms in Mongolian.

For other bodies known as 'unions', see AU and ITU.

 

♦️ ️World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs. It was established in 1944.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Всемирный банк
vsemirnyy bank
'world bank'
Chinese:
世界银行
shìjiè yínháng
'world bank'
Japanese:
世界銀行
sekai ginkō
'world bank'

There is little that can be done to vary the name of the World Bank.

Mongolia

In Mongolia it is known as:

Дэлхийн Банк
delkhiin bank
'world bank'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

Mongolian in China

In China it is known as:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

Дэлхийн Банк
delkhiin bank
'world bank'

 

♦️ ️World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)

The World Federation of Trade Unions is one of the world's major trade union federations. It was established in 1945.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Всемирная федерация профсоюзов
vsemirnaya federatsiya profsoyuzov
'world federation of trade unions'
Chinese:
世界工会联合会
shìjiè gōnghuì liánhé huì
'world trade union federation meeting'
Japanese:
世界労働組合連盟
sekai rōdō kumiai renmei
'world trade union union'

Mongolia

In Mongolia the WFTU is known as:

Дэлхийн Үйлдвэрчний Эвлэлийн Холбоо
delkhiin üildverchnii evleliin kholboo
'world workers' union federation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

  • 'Trade union' (Russian профсоюз profsoyuz) ⇒ the standard term үйлдвэрчний эвлэл üildverchnii evlel 'workers' union', where үйлдвэрчин üildverchin means 'worker' or 'labourer'.
  • 'Federation' (Russian федерация federatsiya) ⇒ холбоо kholboo, a broad term that can mean anything from union to federation to association.

Previously the WFTU was known as:

Бүх Дэлхийн Үйлдвэрчний Эвлэлийн Холбоо
bükh delkhiin üildverchnii evleliin kholboo
'whole-world workers' union federation'

ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Mongolian in China

For China, (2006) lists the WFTU as:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠬᠶᠷᠠᠯ

Дэлхийн Ажилчины Элвэлийн Холбоот Хурал
delkhiin ajilchinii elveliin kholboot khural
'world workers' union federation meeting'

  • 'Trade union' (Chinese 工会 gōnghuì) ⇒ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ (ажилчины элвэл) ajilchinii elvel 'workers' union', the usual term for a trade union or labour union in China.
  • 'Federation' (Chinese 联合会 liánhé huì 'federated meeting') ⇒ literally ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠬᠶᠷᠠᠯ (холбоот хурал) kholboot khural 'federation meeting'. 联合会 liánhé huì is a standard term for federated groups in Chinese, and the general dictionary of (2005) lists both ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (холбоо) kholboo and ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠬᠶᠷᠠᠯ (холбоот хурал) kholboot khural as equivalents.

 

♦️ World Health Organisation (WHO)

The World Health Organisation is a specialised body of the United Nations established in 1948.

Russian, Chinese, Japanese

Russian:
Всемирная организация здравоохранения
vsemirnaya organizatsiya zdravookhraneniya
'world organisation for health care'
Chinese:
世界卫生组织
shìjiè wèishēng zǔzhī
'world health organisation'
Japanese:
世界保健機関
sekai hoken kikan
'world health-protection organ'

While the English uses the simple term 'health', the Russian name uses здравоохранения zdravookhraneniya 'health care', the Chinese name uses 卫生 wèishēng 'health', literally 'life protection', and the Japanese name uses 保健 hoken 'health-protection'. (The Japanese equivalent to 卫生 wèishēng, 衛生 eisei, now tends to be restricted to sanitation and hygiene.)

Mongolia

The WHO is known in Mongolia as:

Дэлхийн Эрүүл Мэндийн Байгууллага
delkhiin erüül mendin baiguullag
'world health organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The Mongolian name follows English rather than Russian.

  • 'Health' is quite literally 'health'. The name is modelled on that of the Mongolian Health Ministry, Эрүүл мэндийн яам erüül mendiin yaam, literally 'health ministry'. The name differs from Russian, in which the normal term for 'health' in this context is здравоохранение zdravookhraneniye 'health care'. This is used both for WHO and for the Russian ministry of health (Министерство здравоохранения ministerstvo zdravookhraneniya).
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

At an earlier stage different names appear to have been used for the WHO in Mongolia. One is:

Бүх Дэлхийн Эрүүлийг Хамгаалах Байгууллага (БДЭХБ)
bükh delkhiin erüüliig khamgaalakh baiguullag
'whole-world health protecting organisation'

ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

Another is:

Дэлхийн Эрүүлийг Хамгаалах Байгууллага (ДЭХБ)
delkhiin erüüliig khamgaalakh baiguullag
'world health protecting organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

  • Both names parallel an earlier name for the Ministry of Public Health, Эрүүлийг Хамгаалах Яам erüüliig khamgaalakh yaam 'health-protecting ministry'.

The two older names are similar to the name currently used in China, suggesting that the current name for both the ministry and the WHO are recent developments based on Western (specifically English) models.

Mongolian in China

The Mongolian name recommended in China (2005, 2006) is:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Дэлхийн эрүүл хамгаалалын зохион байгуулалт
delkhin erüül khamgaalaliin zokhion baiguulalt
'world health protection organisation'

This name reflects the Mongolian-language name for the Chinese Ministry of Health (卫生部 wèishēngbù), which is:

ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ 
ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠣᠨ

Эрүүл хамгаалалын яаман
erüül khamgaalaliin yaaman
'health protection ministry'

  • The name falls within the tradition of referring to the 'protection' of health, as seen in the Chinese term 卫生 wèishēng, literally 'protect life'.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

 

♦️ ️World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)

The World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations which was established in 1967.

Russian:
Всемирная организация интеллектуальной собственности (ВОИС)
vsemirnaya organizatsiya intellektual'noy sobstvennosti
'world intellectual property organisation'
Chinese:
世界知识产权组织
shìjiè zhīshì chǎnquán zǔzhī
'world knowledge property-rights organisation'
Japanese:
世界知的所有権機関
sekai chiteki shoyūken kikan
'world intellectual ownership-rights organ'

'Intellectual property' and 'intellectual property rights' are relatively new terms that postdate the worldwide expansion of Western-influenced vocabulary that took place in the 19th - early 20th centuries. Each language has independently come up with new terms for rendering these concepts.

  • The Russian term is интеллектуальной собственность intellektual'noy sobstvennost' 'intellectual property', a direct translation of the English.
  • Chinese uses 知识产权 zhīshì chǎnquán meaning 'knowledge property-rights'. 产权 chǎnquán 'property-rights' is made up of 产 chǎn, which has has the sense of 'production, property, resource' when used as a noun, and 权 quán 'rights'. Since 产权 chǎnquán is a single word, Chinese terminology effectively makes it obligatory to express the concept of rights. Chinese does not have a term referring only to intellectual property.
  • Japanese is a direct translation of the English: 知的所有権 chiteki shoyū-ken 'intellectual ownership rights', that is, ownership rights of an intellectual nature. This fails to convey the essential information that ownership of intellectual property is involved. Like Chinese, Japanese requires the use of 権 ken 'rights'.

Mongolia

WIPO is known in Mongolia as:

Дэлхийн Оюуны Өмчийн Байгууллага
delkhiin oyunii ömchiin baiguullag
'world intellectual property organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠣᠶᠣᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠮᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The name is clearly a translation of the Russian or English name, referring only to 'intellectual property' without reference to 'rights'.

  • 'Intellectual property' (Russian интеллектуальная собственность intellektual'naya sobstvennost') ⇒ оюуны өмч oyunii ömch, literally 'intellectual property'.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

Mongolian in China

Only one source in China lists a Mongolian-language name for WIPO, but that source (2006) lists two separate names.

The body of the dictionary gives:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠦᠮᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Дэлхийн Мэдлэгийн Өмчийн Эрхийн Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhiin medlegiin ömchiin erkhiin zokhion baiguulalt
'world intellectual property rights organisation'

As in Chinese, this uses the word эрх erkh 'right'. The word for 'intellectual' also follows Chinese 知识 zhīshì 'knowledge'.

  • 'Intellectual property' (Chinese 知识产权 zhīshì chǎnquán 'knowledge property rights') ⇒ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠦᠮᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ (мэдлэгийн өмчийн эрх) medlegiin ömchiin erkh 'knowledge property rights'. 'Intellectual property' by itself is ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠦᠮᠴᠢ (мэдлэгийн өмч) medlegiin ömch 'knowledge property'.

In a list of abbreviations in the same book, WIPO is given as:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Дэлхийн Мэдлэгийн Бүтээгдэхүүний Эрхийн Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhiin medlegiin büteegdekhüünii erkhiin zokhion baiguulalt
'world intellectual product rights organisation'

This also directly translates the Chinese for 'property rights' using the word эрх erkh 'right'. In addition, it uses a different word for 'property':

  • 'Intellectual property' (Chinese 知识产权 zhīshì chǎnquán 'knowledge property-rights') ⇒ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ (мэдлэгийн бүтээгдэхүүн эрх) medlegiin büteegdekhüün erkh literally 'knowledge product rights'. The translation of 产 chǎn as ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ (бүтээгдэхүүн) 'product' appears to be an error. 产 chǎn as a morpheme has a range of meanings. In some words, such as 生产 shēngchǎn 'production' or 产品 chǎnpǐn 'product' it has the meaning of 'production' or 'product'. In 产权 chǎnquán 'property-rights' the meaning is not 'production' but 'property'. Whoever decided to translate 产 chǎn in this case as ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ (бүтээгдэхүүн) 'product' does not appear to have a firm grasp on the semantics of the expression, yielding a translation that is removed from the original term 'intellectual property'.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

 

♦️ World Metereological Organisation (WMO)

The World Metereological Organisation is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1950.

Russian:
Всемирная метеорологическая организация (ВМО)
Vsemirnaya meteorologicheskaya organizatsiya
'world meterological organisation'
Chinese:
世界气象组织
shìjiè qìxiàng zǔzhī
'world meteorological organisation'
Japanese:
世界気象機関
sekai kishō kikan
'world metereological organ'

Mongolia

The WMO is known in Mongolia as:

Дэлхийн Цаг Уурын Байгууллага (ДЦУБ)
delkhiin tsag uuriin baiguullag
'world meteorological organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠣᠷ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

  • 'Metereology' (Russian метеорологическая) ⇒ цаг уур tsag uur 'weather'.
  • 'Organisation' (Russian организация) ⇒ байгууллага baiguullag.

Mongolian in China

According to (2005, 2006, 2008), the suggested term in China is:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ
ᠠᠭᠣᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Дэлхийн Цаг Уурын Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhiin tsag uuriin zokhion baiguulalt
'world meteorological organisation'

  • 'Metereology' (Chinese 气象 qìxiàng) ⇒ цаг уур tsag uur 'weather'.
  • 'Organisation' (Chinese 组织 zǔzhī) ⇒ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (зохион байгуулалт) zokhion baiguulalt 'organisation'.

 

♦️ World Trade Organisation (WTO)

The World Trade Organisation is an intergovernmental organisation which regulates international trade. It was established in 1995.

Russian:
Всемирная торговая организация
vsemirnaya torgovaya organizatsiya
'world trade organisation'
Chinese:
世界贸易组织
shìjiè màoyì zǔzhī
'world trade organisation'
Japanese:
世界貿易機関
sekai bōeki kikan
'world trade organ'

Mongolia

The WTO is known in Mongolia as:

Дэлхийн худалдааны байгууллага
delkhin khudaldaani baiguullag
'world trade organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠳᠠᠯᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

  • 'Trade' (Russian торговый torgovyy adj. from торговля torgovlya 'trade') ⇒ the standard term худалдаа khudaldaa. Худалдаа khudaldaa is a word with the general meaning of 'trade, business, commerce'. In China, it is treated as equivalent to 'commerce' (商业 shāngyè).
  • In Mongolia 'organisation' is consistently treated as байгууллага baiguullag.

Mongolian in China

The according to (2005, 2008), the term recommended for China is:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Дэлхийн арилжааны зохион байгуулалт
delkhin æraljaani zokhion baiguulalt
'world trade organisation'

  • For 'trade' (Chinese 贸易 màoyì) ⇒ the standard term арилжаа æraljaa 'change, exchange, barter, trade'. In Mongolia, this term is used in the meaning of 'commerce'.
  • 'Organisation' ⇒ зохион байгуулалт zokhion baiguulalt.

C. Sources

For the Mongolian-language names in China, I used the following dictionaries:

1. The "Mongolian-Chinese Dictionary (revised expanded edition)", a general dictionary.

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ
(ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷ)

Cyrillic: Монгол Хятад Толь (Нэмэн зассан дэвтэр) mongol khyatad tol' (nemen zassan devter)
Chinese: 蒙汉词典 (增订本) měng-hàn cídiǎn (zēngdìng-běn)

Inner Mongolian University Press (内蒙古大学出版社)

ᠦᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠠᠭᠣᠯᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Hohhot 1999.

2. The "Chinese-Mongolian Dictionary (3rd edition)"

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ
(ᠭᠣᠷᠪᠠᠳᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ)

Cyrillic: Хятад Монгол Толь (гуравдугаар хэвлэл) khyatad mongol tol' (gurav dugaar khevlel)
Chinese: 汉蒙词典 (第三版) hàn-měng cídiǎn (dìsānbǎn)

Publishing House of Minority Nationalities (民族出版社)

ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Beijing 2005

3. "Chinese English Mongolian Social Science Terminology Series: Jurisprudence"

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠠᠩᠭ᠍ᠯᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠣᠯᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠨᠡᠢᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠦ
ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠷᠢᠰ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ᠄
ᠬᠠᠣᠯᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠣᠬᠠᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Cyrillic: Хууль Цаазний Ухааны Нэр Томоо khuul' tsaaznii ukhaanii ner tomoo
Chinese: 法律学名词术语 fǎlǜ-xué míngcí shùyǔ

Inner Mongolian Educational Press (内蒙古教育出版社)

ᠦᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Hohhot 2006

4. "Chinese-Mongolian Dictionary of New Terms"

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ

Cyrillic: Хятад Монгол Шинэ Үгсийн Толь khyatad mongol shine ugsiin tol'
Chinese: 汉蒙新词语词典 hànměng xīncíyǔ cídiǎn

Publishing House of Minority Nationalities (民族出版社)

ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Beijing 2008

For names used in Mongolia, I used:

1. International Organisations (website with names from a huge range of languages)

2. A Modern Mongolian-English Dictionary

by Gombojab Hangin
with John R. Krueger and Paul D. Buell, William V. Rozycki, and Robert G. Service.

Indiana University Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies 1986.

3. English-Mongolian Dictionary

by Ch. Ganhuyag

Project Monendic 2010

4. Google Translate and many websites on the Internet.


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