Bathrobe's Le Petit Prince
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The 'Sheep Test' and other tests for Identifying if The Little Prince was Translated from French or English

 

In their haste to put their own version of The Little Prince on the market, it's not surprising that some publishers in China and Taiwan have taken shortcuts. Since translators who understand English are much easier to find than those who understand French, one common expedient is to translate from the English version (usually that of Katherine Woods) rather than the French original. The differences that arise from this can be quite conspicuous.

By inspecting such differences, it should be possible to discern whether a translation is based on the French original or the English translation. I have found at least five places (there are actually many more) where the translation gives clues as to the version that was used.

However, the results of the tests are not always completely clear cut. Some translations appear to share features from both the French and English versions. Translators are possibly referring to earlier translations as they work -- in fact, some translators have cribbed passages from earlier translations, without acknowledgement. The most egregious example of this is Liú 2004, which plagiarises whole chapters from Lǐ-1 2002.

There are also 改编 gǎibiān, or adaptations, which are not always acknowledged as such. Even in the case of adaptations, it's often possible to tell whether it's based on a translation from the French original or the English version.

The five tests are as follows:

The Sheep Test:

Katherine Woods made one very obvious mistake in her English translation.

The error occurs in Chapter 4, in the sentence: Il était une fois un petit prince qui habitait une planète à peine plus grande que lui, et qui avait besoin d'un ami... The correct translation is (to use Irene Testot-Ferry's translation): 'Once upon a time there was a little prince who lived on a planet scarcely bigger than himself and who had need of a friend'. Katherine Woods translated this as 'Once upon a time there was a little prince who lived on a planet that was scarcely any bigger than himself, and who had need of a sheep...'

To test if a translation is based on Katherine Woods' version, one rule of thumb is to check if it uses 'sheep' instead of 'friend'. Naturally this is not foolproof as there are other possibilities, especially the practice of cribbing from other translations. On the whole, however, the test seems to work reasonably well in identifying those translations that are based on Woods.

The 'True Stories' Test:

Another, less clear-cut test is found in Chapter 1, where the narrator refers to a book, Histoires Vécues. Vécu is the past participle of vivre 'to live', so this literally means 'Lived Stories', that is, stories that have actually been undergone or experienced. In more idiomatic English, this can be translated as 'Real-life Stories'. Irene Testot-Ferry translates it as 'True Stories'.

Katherine Woods translates this book title as 'True Stories from Nature'. Since there's no reference to nature in the original French, it stands to reason that a Chinese translation including a word equivalent to 'nature' is based on Woods' English version.

The 'Look' Test:

At Chapter 25, there's a discussion about people not finding what they are 'looking for'. The little prince says: Mais les yeux sont aveugles. Il faut chercher avec le cœur. This is translated by Woods as: 'But the eyes are blind. One must look with the heart'. Here, 'look with the heart' means 'seek with the heart', and not merely 'view with the heart'. That is, 'look' is short for 'look for'. This provides an important clue. French chercher could only be translated as zhǎo or 寻找 xúnzhǎo ('seek, look for'). A translation using the word kàn ('see' or 'look') would obviously have been influenced by the English word 'look'. The use of kàn would thus give a strong indication that a translation is based on the English version.

The 'A Very Simple Secret' Test

Another test is found in the fox's secret itself. The French says, Voici mon secret. Il est très simple. Katherine Woods translates this as: 'Now here is my secret, a very simple secret'. The difference in structure is reflected in many of the Chinese translations. For the purpose of this exercise, they are divided into Pattern A (structure similar to the French), Pattern B (structure similar to the English), and Pattern C (other structure).

A structure is consigned to Pattern A if it follows this pattern: (其实)(它)很简单 (qíshí) (tā) hěn jiǎndān '(actually) (it) is very simple'.

A structure is consigned to Pattern B if it follows this pattern or something similar: ...秘密,一个很简单的秘密 ...mìmì, yīge hěn jiǎndān de mìmì '...secret, a very simple secret'.

Pattern C covers any other cases that stray too far from these two, e.g., 我的秘密很简单 wǒ de mìmì hěn jiǎndān 'my secret is very simple'.

Anything following Pattern B is fairly obviously derived from English. However, Patterns A and C are not so clear cut, and appear to occur in translations from both the French original and the English version of Katherine Woods.

The 'Secret of Your Sad Little Life' Test

At the passage about the little prince's fondness for sunsets, we find another clue concerning the original used by translators.

The narrator says: j'ai compris, peu à peu, ainsi, ta petite vie mélancolique. ('I understood, little by little, in this way, your little melancholy life').

Katherine Woods translates this as: "Bit by bit I came to understand the secrets of your sad little life...". The most noticeable difference is the addition of the word 'secrets' in the English version. A minor difference is also seen in punctuation. The French uses a full stop; the English version uses three full stops ('...').

These features are both reflected in Chinese translations.

Despite these different tests, there are difficulties in assigning some translations. These difficulties are illustrated by versions like Chén 1998, Dù 2002, Lǐ-2 2002, Cāo & Féng 2004, Wú 2004, Yáng 2004, and Ài 2005, where the 'Sheep' test and the 'A Very Simple Secret Test' are in disagreement. In cases like these it's possible that translators have either taken a very free approach to rendering the Fox's Secret, or have relied on other translations in their work. Thus, there remains some fuzziness in making a definitive assignment to English or French. A closer look at other places in the text may resolve some of these questions. (One difficulty in making an assignment is the fact that I don't have a full collection of all Chinese translations, especially early versions, which could throw light on the way translators copied from earlier versions.)

The following are my rather Procustean procedures for assigning translations to French or English:

1. If a translation uses 'sheep' it's assigned to English. This assignment is backed up with the 'True Stories' test. In all cases the two tests were found to agree.

2. Even translations using 'friend' are tentatively assigned to English if they use Pattern B in the 'A Very Simple Secret' Test.

3. A final assignment to English is made only if Pattern B is backed up by the 'True Stories' test and the 'Look' test.

4. The 'Secret of your sad little life test' is used mainly as confirmation.

Based on the above procedures, at least 26 Chinese-language translations appear to be based on Katherine Woods' version, although one can be excluded as being totally plagiaristic. 26 are based on French. And one must be left indeterminate.

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No. ID Story Title Translator Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 Other version included? Verdict
0 Original Le Petit Prince -- Friend Histoires Vécues chercher -      
  English
1 Woods 1943 The Little Prince Katherine Woods Sheep True Stories from Nature look        
2 Cuffe 1995 The Little Prince T. V. F. Cuffe Friend True Stories of the Virgin Forest look        
3 Testot-Ferry 1995 The Little Prince Irene Testot-Ferry Friend True Stories look        
4 Wakeman 1997 The Little Prince Alan Wakeman Friend Life's True Stories look        
5 Howard 2000 The Little Prince Richard Howard Friend True Stories ?        
  Chinese
1 Shī 1991 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
施麗薰
Shī Lìxūn
Friend 自然界的真實故事
Zìrán-jiè de Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories of the natural world'

kàn
B -- ......   E
2 Sòng 1992 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
宋碧雲
Sòng Bìyún
Sheep 自然實錄
Zìrán Shílù
'Factual record of nature'

kàn
A 秘密......   E
3 Yáo 1994 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
姚文雀
Yáo Wénquè
Friend 生命的真實故事
Shēngmìng de Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories of life'
(才能看得到)
(cái néng kàn-de-dào)
C --。   F
4 Chén 1998 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
總監:陳美儒
Supervisor: Chén Měirú
Sheep 自然界實錄
Zìrán-jiè Shílù
'Factual record of the natural world'
尋找
xúnzhǎo
A 秘密   E
6 Wú 1999 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
吳淡如
Wú Dànrú
Sheep 自然界真實故事
Zìrán-jiè Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories of the natural world'

kàn
C 秘密......   E
7 Lǐ & Yè 2000 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
李思/葉平亭
Lǐ Sī / Yè Píngtíng
Friend 大自然的真相
Dàzìrán de Zhēnxiàng
'Facts of nature'

kàn
B 秘密...... Japanese E
7 Mǎ 2000 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
馬森
Mǎ Sēn
Friend 真實的故事
Zhēnshí de Gùshì
'True stories'

zhǎo
A --   F
8 Máo 2000 小小王子
Xiǎo Xiǎo Wángzi
毛旭太
Máo Xùtài
Friend 亲身经历的故事
Qīnshēn Jīnglì de Gùshì
'Personally experienced stories'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A 秘密   F
9 Xuē 2000 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
薛菲
Xuē Fēi
Sheep 大自然的真相
Dàzìrán de Zhēnxiàng
'Facts of nature'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
C 秘密......   E
10 Zhōu 2000 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
Le Petit Prince
周光怡
Zhōu Guāngyí
Friend 親身經歷的故事
Qīnshēn Jīnglì de Gùshì
'Personally experienced stories'
尋找
xúnzhǎo
A -- French F
11 Translator unknown 2000 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
-- Friend 真实的故事
Zhēnshí de Gùshì
'True stories'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A --   F
12 Ài 2001 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
艾柯
Ài Kē
Friend 生命中的真实故事
Shēngmìng-zhōng de Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories in life'
(才能看得到)
(cái néng kàn-de-dào)
C -- Woods F
13 Chén 2001 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
陳姿穎
Chén Zīyǐng
Friend 自然實錄
Zìrán Shílù
'Factual record of nature'

kàn
C --   ?
14 Mǎ 2001 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
馬振騁
Mǎ Zhènchéng
Friend 親身經歷的故事
Qīnshēn Jīnglì de Gùshì
'Stories of personal experience'
尋找
xúnzhǎo
A --   F
15 Wú & Dǒng 2001 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
吳旻旻/董亦舒
Wú Mínmín / Dǒng Yìshū
Friend 真實故事
Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories'
尋找
xúnzhǎo
A --   F
16 Zhāng 2001 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
張譯
Zhāng Yì
Friend 往日真實故事集
Wǎngrì Zhēnshí Gùshì-jí 'Collection of true stories from the past'
尋找
xúnzhǎo
C --   F
17 Dù 2002 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
杜子西
Dù Zǐxī
Sheep 大自然的真相
Dàzìrán de Zhēnxiàng
'Facts of nature'
尋找
xúnzhǎo
A 祕密   E
18 Lǐ-1 2002 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
李淑貞
Lǐ Shūzhēn
Sheep 自然界圖鑑
Zìrán-jiè Tújiàn
'Pictorial handbook of the natural world'

kàn
B 秘密和憂愁...... Woods E
19 Lǐ-2 2002 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
李宗恬
Lǐ Zōngtián
Sheep 自然界的故事
Zìrán-jiè de Gùshì
'Stories of the natural world'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A --   E
20 Zhōu 2002 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
周克希
Zhōu Kèxī
Friend 真实的故事
Zhēnshí de Gùshì
'True stories'

zhǎo
A --   F
21 Chéng 2003 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
程惠珊
Chéng Huìshān
Sheep 自然界中的真实故事
Zìrán-jiè-zhōng de Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories in the natural world'
探寻
tānxún
A 秘密...... Woods E
22 Lín 2003 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
林珍妮
Lín Zhēnní
Friend 丛林奇遇记
Cónglín Qíyù-jì
'Record of adventures in the jungle'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A --   F
23 Xū 2003 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
胥弋
Xū Yì
Friend 亲历记
Qīnlì-jì
'Record of personal experiences'

zhǎo
A -- Woods, French F
24 Zhèng 2003 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
郑闯琦
Zhèng Chuángqí
Sheep 源于自然的真实的故事
Yuán-yú Zìrán de Zhēnshí de Gùshì
'True stories from nature'

kàn
B 秘密...... Woods E
25 Bái 2004 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
白栗微
Bái Lìwēi
Sheep 真实的故事
Zhēnshí de Gùshì
'True stories'

kàn
C --...... Woods E
26 Cāo & Féng 2004 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
曹琳 / 冯倩
Cāo Lín, Féng Qiàn
Sheep 自然的真实故事
Zìrán de Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories of nature'

kàn
A 秘密...... Woods E
27 Dài 2004 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
戴蔚然
Dài Wèirán
Sheep 自然界里的真实故事
Zìrán-shìjiè-lǐ de Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories in the natural world'
()
(zhǎo)
B 秘密——   E
28 Liú 2004 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
刘文钟
Liú Wénzhōng
Sheep 源于自然界真实的故事
Yuán-yú Zìrán-jiè Zhēnshí de Gùshì
'True stories from the natural world'
体味
tǐwèi
B 秘密...... Woods E - plagiarised
29 Lóng 2004 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
龙婧
Lóng Jìng
Friend 真实的故事
Zhēnshí de Gùshì
'True stories'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A -- Woods F
30 Lǚ 2004 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
吕明
Lǚ Míng
Friend 大自然的真相
Dàzìrán de Zhēnxiàng
'Facts of nature'

kàn
B 秘密...... Woods E
31 Táng 2004 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
唐珍
Táng Zhēn
Friend 亲身经历的故事
Qīnshēn Jīnglì de Gùshì
'Stories of personal experience'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A --   F
32 Wú 2004 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
吴群芳
Wú Qúnfāng
Sheep 自然奇观
Zìrán Qíguān
'Wonders of nature'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A 秘密 Woods E
33 Yáng 2004 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
楊玉娘
Yáng Yùniáng
Sheep 大自然的真相
Dàzìrán de Zhēnxiàng
'Facts of nature'
尋找
xúnzhǎo
A 祕密......   E
34 Ài 2005 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
艾梅
Ài Méi
Sheep 大自然的真实故事
Dàzìrán de Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories of nature'

kàn
A 秘密 Woods E
35 Guō 2005 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
郭宏安
Guō Hóng'ān
Friend 真实的故事
Zhēnshí de Gùshì
'True stories'

zhǎo
A --   F
36 Huáng 2005 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
黄旭颖
Huáng Xùyǐng
Friend 亲身经历的故事
Qīnshēn Jīnglì de Gùshì
'Stories personally experienced'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A --   F
37 Xiāo 2005 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
肖遥
Xiāo Yáo
Friend 生命中真实的故事
Shēngmìng-zhōng Zhēnshí de Gùshì
'True stories in life'
(才能看得到)
(cái néng kàn-de-dào)
C -- Woods F
38 Bā 2006 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
八月
Bā Yuè
Sheep 大自然的故事
Dàzìrán de Gùshì
'Stories of nature'
观察
guānchá
B --......   E
39 Chén & Huǒ 2006 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
陈建伟 / 火风
Chén Jiànwěi / Huǒ Fēng
Friend 真实的故事
Zhénshí de gùshì
'True stories'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A --。 French F
40 Dà 2006 青鸟·小王子
Qīngniǎo Xiǎo Wángzǐ
大壮
Dà Zhuàng
Sheep 大自然的真实故事
Dàzìrán de Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories of nature'

zhǎo
B --   E
41 Hóng 2006 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
洪友
Hóng Yǒu
Sheep 大自然的真实故事
Dàzìrán de Zhēnshí Gùshi
'True stories of nature'

kàn
B 奥秘...... Woods, French E
42 Liǔ 2006 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
柳鸣九
Liǔ Míngjiǔ
Friend 百兽生猛史
Bǎishòu Shēngměng-Shǐ
'Ferocious stories of all beasts'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A --   F
43 Mǎ 2006 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
马爱农
Mǎ Àinóng
Sheep 自然界的真实故事
Zìrán-jiè de Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories of nature'
观察
guānchá
B 秘密...... Woods E
44 Zhōu 2006 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
周国强
Zhōu Guóqiáng
Friend 真实故事
Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A --   F
45 Zǐ 2006 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
紫陌
Zǐ Mó
Friend 真实的故事
Zhēnshí de Gùshi
'True stories'

zhǎo
A 秘密 Woods F
46 Wáng & Qián 2008 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
王佳 / 钱治安
Wáng Jià / Qián Zhì'ān
Friend 丛林奇遇记
Cónglín qíyù-jì
'Record of adventures in the jungle'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A   F
47 Wú 2008 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
吴可
Wú Kě
Friend 真实的故事
Zhēnshí de Gùshi
'True stories'

zhǎo
A   F
48 Féng 2010 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
冯瑞贞
Féng Ruìzhēn
Sheep 自然界的真实故事
Zìrán-jiè de Zhēnshí Gùshì
'True stories of nature'

zhǎo
A 秘密...   E
49 Lín 2010 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
林秀清
Lín Xiùqīng
Friend 亲身经历的故事
Qīnshēn Jīnglì de Gùshì
'Stories personally experienced'

zhǎo
A   F
50 Wáng 2010 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
王之光
Wáng Zhīguāng
Friend 真实的故事
Zhēnshí de Gùshi
'True stories'

zhǎo
A Woods F
51 Zhèng 2010 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzǐ
郑好
Zhèng Hǎo
Sheep 大自然的真实故事
Dàzìrán de Zhēnshí Gùshi
'True stories of nature'

kàn
B 奥秘...... French, Woods E
52 Yì ND 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
易林
Yì Lín
(?)
? ?   ? 憂傷與秘密了。   ?
53 Translator unknown ND-1 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
? Friend 真实的故事
Zhēnshí de Gùshi
'True stories'
寻找
xúnzhǎo
A --   F
54 Translator unknown ND-2 小王子
Xiǎo Wángzi
? ? ?   B ? -- E
  Japanese
1 Naitō 1953 星の王子さま
Hoshi no Ōji-sama
内藤 濯
Naitō Arō
Friend ほんとうにあった話
Hontō ni Atta Hanashi
'Stories that really happened' (='True stories')
さがさないと
sagasanai to
C     - F
2 Fujita 2005 小さな王子
新訳『星の王子さま』

Chiisa na Ōji
Shin-yaku "Hoshi no Ōji-sama"
藤田尊潮
Fujita Sonchō
Friend 実話集
Jitsuwa-shū
'Collection of true stories'
さがさなくちゃ
sagasanakucha
A       F
3 Ikezawa 2005 星の王子さま
Hoshi no Ōji-sama
池澤夏樹
Ikezawa Natsuki
Friend ほんとうの物語
Hontō no Monogatari
'True stories'
探さないと
sagasanai to
A       F
4 Ishii 2005 星の王子さま
Hoshi no Ōji-sama
石井洋二郎
Ishii Yōjirō
Friend 実際にあった話
Jissai ni atta Hanashi
'Stories that actually happened'
さがさなければ
sagasanakereba
A       F
5 Kawakami & Tsuzura 2005 プチ・プランス
Puchi Puransu
川上勉/廿楽美登利
Kawakami Tsutomu / Tsuzura Midori
Friend 実話
Jitsuwa
'True stories'
探さなくちゃ
sagasanakucha
A     French F
6 Mino 2005 星の王子さま
Hoshi no Ōji-sama
三野博司
Mino Hiroshi
Friend ほんとうにあった話
Hontō ni atta Hanashi
'Stories that really happened'
探さなくちゃ
sagasanakucha
A       F
7 Shinsan 2005 「新」訳
星の王子さま

"Shin" yaku Hoshi no Ōji-sama
辛酸なめ子
Shinsan Nameko
Friend ほんとうにあった話
Hontō ni atta Hanashi
'Stories that really happened'
探さないと
sagasanai to
A       F
8 Yamazaki 2005 小さな王子さま
Chiisa na Ōji-sama
山崎庸一郎
Yamazaki Yōichirō
Friend ほんとうにあった話
Hontō ni atta Hanashi
'Stories that really happened'
探さなくちゃ
sagasanakucha
A       F
9 Inagaki 2006 星の王子さま
Hoshi no Ōji-sama
稲垣直樹
Inagaki Naoki
Friend ほんとうにあった話
Hontō ni atta Hanashi
'Stories that really happened'
探さなくちゃ
sagasanakucha
A       F
10 Kawahara 2006 小さな星の王子さま
Chiisa na Hoshi no Ōji-sama
河原康則
Kawahara Yasunori
Friend ほんとうにあるお話
Hontō ni aru O-hanashi
'Stories that really were'
さがさなきゃsagasanakya A       F
11 Kojima 2006 星の王子さま
Hoshi no Ōji-sama
小島俊明
Kojima Toshiharu
Friend 体験した話
Taiken shita Hanashi
'Stories that were experienced'
探し求めなければ
sagashi-motomenakereba
A       F
12 Kōno 2006 星の王子さま
Hoshi no Ōji-sama
河野万里子
Kōno Mariko
Friend ほんとうにあった話
Hontō ni atta Hanashi
'Stories that really happened'
さがさなくちゃ
sagasanakucha
A       F
13 Kurahashi 2006 新訳星の王子さま
Shin'yaku Hoshi no Ōji-sama
倉橋由美子
Kurahashi Yumiko
Friend ほんとうにあった話
Hontō ni atta Hanashi
'Stories that really happened'
見ないと
minai to
A       F
  Mita 2006 星の王子さま
Hoshi no Ōji-sama
三田誠広
Mita Masahiro
Friend ほんとの話
Honto no hanashi
'True stories'
さがさなくちゃ
sagasanakucha
A       F
14 Nozaki 2006 ちいさな王子
Chiisa na Ōji
野崎歓
Nozaki Kan
Friend 本当にあった話
Hontō ni atta hanashi
'Stories that really happened'
さがさなくちゃ
sagasanakucha
A       F
15 Tanigawa 2006 星の王子さま
Hoshi no Ōji-sama
谷川かおる
Tanigawa Kaoru
Friend 本当にあった話
Hontō ni atta hanashi
'Stories that really happened'
探さなくちゃ
sagasanakucha
A       F
  Vietnamese
1 Long 2000-1 Em bé con nhà trời Nguyễn Thành Long Friend Những câu chuyện có sống qua
'Stories that were lived'
tìm kiếm
'search'
A       F
2 Long 2000-2 Chú bé Hoàng tư Nguyễn Thành Long Friend Những câu chuyện có thật
'Stories that are true'
tìm kiếm
'search'
A     French F
3 Đại 2005 Hoàng Tử Bé Nguyễn Tấn Đại Friend -   A       F
4 Giáng ND Hoàng Tử Bé Bùi Giáng   Sự tích đã sống
'Stories that were lived'
tìm kiếm
'search'
A       F
5 Lạc ND Hoàng Tử Bé Vĩnh Lạc Friend Những chuyện có thật
'Stories that are true'
tìm kiếm
'search'
A       F

 

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